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By Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik

An fundamental shop of knowledge at the English language, written by way of a number of the best-known grammarians on this planet.

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18) Figure/ Ground Reversals; door, window. a . The window is rotting . b . Mary crawled through the window . (19) Product / Producer alternation ; newspaper, Honda. a . The newspaper fired its editor . b . John spilled coffee on the newspaper . (20) Plant / Food alternations; fig , apple. a. Mary ate a fig for lunch . b . Mary watered the figs in the garden . (21) Process/ Result alternation ; examination, merger. a. The company 's merger with Honda will begin next fall . b . The merger will prod lice cars .

Zac tried to open his mouth for the dentist. Following Weinreich's usage, I will refer to these sensedistinctions as complementary polysemies. Somehow, our model of lexical meaning must be able to account for how the word for bank can refer to both an institution and a building , how the word for window can refer to both an aperture and a physical object, and how stative predicates can also refer to causative acts. In the examples above, there are two types of sense complementarity: (a) category preserving, and (b) category changing.

HUMAN PROPENSITY: jealous , happy , kind , proud , cruel , gay 5 . AGE : new , old , young 6. VALUE: good , bad , excellent , fine , delicious 7. SPEED: fast , quick , slow 8 . DIFFICULTY : difficult , easy 9 . SIMILARITY : alike , similar 10. QUALIFICATION: possible , probable , likely The Nature of Lexical Knowledge 23 Such classescan be very useful for descriptive purposes, but reveal little about the functional or relational properties of the predicate. For example, the adjectives difficult and easyare tough-movement predicates and behave the same with respect to this construction.

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