By Tony Penston
A Concise Grammar for English Language lecturers - это новая редакция очень популярной грамматики A Grammar direction for TEFL certificates. Эта книга является, пожалуй, единственно действительно удобной грамматикой для преподавателей английского языка .... находка для тех, кто раньше «боялся» английской грамматики. Ясно и четко рассматривает проблемные моменты, с которыми обычно сталкиваются учителя, например, распознавание времен и их употребление, условия, вспомогательные глаголы, относительные предложения и т.д.
Включает в себя множество заметок к преподаванию с практическими рекомендациями, а также раздел, посвященный анализу и коррекции ошибок, демонстрирует использование доски и парной-работы. Если вы совершенствуете свой английский самостоятельно или на заочных курсах - это пособие будет очень полезным для вас.
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Extra resources for A Concise Grammar for English Language Teachers
B. *Lee thinks that [most [e] of Italy] are too dry, and that the wines NP (55) of France are the only ones worth drinking. Sluicing a. *Even though we aren't sure [who [e] the painting], we know that S' someone bought the Van Gogh. b. *Although [exactly when [e] to Honolulu] is unclear, we heard S' Linda was going to Hawaii. Summarizing, following the diagnostics in (40) and (41), it is possible to claim that VP Ellipsis, ellipsis in NP, and Sluicing form a natural class of phenomena distinct from Gapping.
Hankamer and Sag (1976) argue for a different approach to the derivation of ellipted VPs. They claim that ellipted VPs are derived by deletion rules which delete VP only when it is appropriately 'identical' to an antecedent VP. 15 Though the above analyses crucially differ with respect to the source of ellipted categories, both Williams (1977) and Sag (1976) claim that the 'identity' requirement for ellipted categories is best stated in terms of 'alphabetic variants' expressed in terms of lambda expressions; the empty VP must be an 'alphabetic variant' of its antecedent in order for recoverability to be satisfied.
In (6), the notion 'm-command' derives from the definition of c-command in (i): (i) a c-commands b iff a does not dominate b and every y that dominates a dominates b Where y is restricted to maximal projections (following Aoun and Sportiche, 1983), we will say that a m-commands b. (Chomsky, 1986b, p. 8) 'Exclude' is defined as in (ii): (ii) a excludes b if no segment of a dominates b (Chomsky, 1986b, p. 9) 2. It is not clear how VP can be both theta-governed and a non-argument, as arguments are typically defined as theta-marked elements.