By Elizabeth A. Cowper
This textbook is meant to offer scholars a short commence in utilizing conception to handle syntactic questions. At each one degree, Cowper is cautious to introduce a theoretical gear that's not more advanced than is needed to house the phenomenon into account. finished and up to date, this obtainable quantity also will offer a great refresher for linguists returning to the learn of Government-Binding theory". Cowper indicates the analytical units of present principles-and-parameters ways, takes readers conscientiously in the course of the significant components of grammatical conception (including very contemporary work), and ushers them selectively into the technical literature. . . . a significant creation in case you need to know the nuts and bolts of syntactic thought and to work out why linguists are so excited those days". -David Lightfoot, collage of Maryland "An first-class brief advent to the govt. and Binding version of syntactic idea. . . . Cowper's paintings succeeds in educating syntactic argumentation and in displaying the conceptual purposes at the back of particular proposals in glossy syntactic theory". -Jaklin Kornfilt, Syracuse collage
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Extra resources for A Concise Introduction to Syntactic Theory: The Government-Binding Approach
F. g. h. etc. N" ~ N" Conj N" N' ~ N' Conj N' N~NConjN V" ~ V" Conj V" V' ~ V' Conj V' V ~ V Conj V ADJ' ~ ADJ' Conj ADJ' ADJ ~ ADJ Conj ADJ This approach has three flaws. First, a large number of phrase structure rules is required to express what is essentially a single property of language, namely that structures may be conjoined. Second, this analysis does not make any explicit generalizations about conjoined structures: which categories may be conjoined, and what do conjoined structures in general look like?
On Thursday her soup quietly. If the direct object is dominated by V', as in (58), then we can say that the order of elements dominated by VP is relatively free, while still forcing the direct object to remain next to the verb. The flat structure in (57) does not provide any way to single out the direct object from the rest of the postverbal elements in VP. The notation we have used to describe the hierarchical structure of the verb phrase and the noun phrase is known as the "'bar" notation. The lexical head of a category has no bars (N, V) and each level within the category has one more than, or the same number of bars as, the level immediately below it.
Marge Marge Marge *Marge put put put put her hat on. on her hat. her hat on the shelf. on the shelf her hat. The meaning shift can be handled fairly easily. There are many expressions whose meaning is different from the combination of the meanings of the words in the expression; these are called idioms. , can simply be listed in the lexicon with their meanings. The word-order alternation in (20) can also be accounted for, but the account requires more theoretical apparatus than we have developed at this point.