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Extra resources for A. Wilhelm Neumann, Robert David, and Yi Zuo (eds): Applied Surface Thermodynamics, 2nd Edition
In addition to the confluent zones represented by dividing surfaces (interfaces) and the ones represented by dividing lines, a fluid system may contain yet another dimensional class of confluent zone, namely that represented by dividing points. When several dividing lines intersect, the common point of intersection may be described in terms of excess properties of the point in analogy with the excess property descriptions of both dividing surfaces and lines . 5 Mechanical Equilibrium Conditions The descriptive formalism of equilibrium thermodynamics for fluid systems is based on the fundamental equations described above and a minimum principle.
No amount of its length), may lie on the outer wall. Finally, it is necessary to require that a dividing point not be an outer wall point. If any of these conditions are violated, then one would obtain a constrained variation or the mechanical equilibrium conditions for the dividing surfaces, lines, or points would be connected to the geometric shape of the imaginary bounding surface of the composite, fluid system. The total free energy is divided into parts assigned to the bulk, surface, line, and point regions of the composite system.
51) L L L L gj The differential and integrated forms of U(L) may be written down in a similar manner to the expressions given previously for u(l) in the density formalism. 44, defines the energy of the dividing line in terms of the “linear densities” to which Gibbs alluded and in terms of suitable differentially invariant, intensive parameters that uniquely define the curvature and the contact angle configuration of the line at every point in three dimensions. In addition to the confluent zones represented by dividing surfaces (interfaces) and the ones represented by dividing lines, a fluid system may contain yet another dimensional class of confluent zone, namely that represented by dividing points.