By William Oscar Emil Oesterley
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As though these internal troubles were not enough, there occurred presently the Parthian incursions into Palestine; thus, foreign troops again overran the country, troops, too, grinding A SURVEY OF THE HISTORICAL BACKGRUUINJU 39 of a particularly fierce nature; it is true, no details are recorded of their doings during these incursions, but it does not require much imagination to picture the kind of thing that would go on when armies of a powerful, semi-civilized people were let loose upon a centre of a more advanced civilization, with but little to restrain lawless passions and the lust of plunder.
Xiii. 41, 42, " was taken away from Israel. " Soon after this the Citadel of Jerusalem, which had for so long been in the hands of the Syrian soldiery, was evacuated, and the Jews entered it in triumph " with praise and palm branches, and with harps, and with cymbals and with viols, and with hymns and with " songs, because a great enemy was destroyed out of Israel (I Mace. xiii. 51). 1 Asmonaeus, or Hashmon according to the Hebrew form, was the ancestor of the Maccabaean. family, see Josephus, Antiq.
30), or one belonging to the tribe of Massa, which was, according to Gen. xxv. 14, an Arabian tribe. Even apart from this last reference, it is THE WISDOM LITERATURE 46 quite clear that the Israelites were acquainted with the wisdom of Babylon, Egypt, Syria, Arabia and Edom; and so far as Babylonia and Egypt are concerned, we have seen that material of the Wisdom were doubtless two countries. familiar, III. " they nevertheless reflect what must often have been in the minds of the Hebrew Wisdom writers; for it is evident from their writings that they regarded the great majority of man: kind as lacking sense.