By Joseph Russell, P. Russell
The current e-book was once written a few two decades in the past however it has no longer misplaced its topicality, for it includes an enormous re-examination of the relatives of 2 major streams of up to date philosophy - the Analytical and the Dialectic. Adherents and critics of those traditions are inclined to assurnethat they're diametrically hostile, that their roots, issues and techniques contradict one another, and that no reconciliation is feasible. In contradistinction Russell derives either traditions from the typical root of the dissatisfaction with the arguments opposed to speculative philosophy. those in accordance with the writer depart a lacuna - sure elementsof our Weltanschaaung were got rid of, yet they can not be got rid of with no substitute lest now we have an incomplete international view, so incomplete in reality that it can't be plausible. in line with Russell a part of this vacuum is taken up by way of the analytical culture yet this custom isn't really in a position to taking on the rest of it. That element of the vacant house is even if taken up through the dialectical tradi tion, which in flip can't itself deal with the total of the matter. hence the 2 reactions to the dying of speculative philosophy seem to be complementary in at the least this feeling. however the writer is going additional, for in accordance with hirn the analytical arguments themselves in actual fact element to the emergence of dialectical difficulties, and the dialectical difficulties themselves want a few such history to arise.
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Additional info for Analysis and Dialectic: Studies in the Logic of Foundation Problems
The case Ls similar in the philosophy of mathematics and physics. The general question about the nature of mathematics has to be elucidated in terms of specifiable difficulties in the practice of mathematics; and an answer SCIENCE, SPECULATION AND LOGIC 27 to it is relevant precisely to the extent to which it clarifies and removes the difficulties. ms of the process of arithmetizing, or 'quantizing', the data of physics, and the consequent possibility of deploying mathematics in the organization of these data.
In many ways our action presupposes beliefs for which there is no adequate ev1dence, and it was the apprehension of this situation which lay behind James' idea of the will-to-believe. Dur notions about what constitutes valid evidence are themselves open to SCIENCE, SPECULATION AND LOGIC 25 criticism, and even in connexion with common-sense Hume was compelled to introduce a philosophical concept of belief which is, logically, far closer to faith than to, say, inadequately confirmed knowledge. But it is not our immediate business to pursue these questions.
The point of saying this is not merely to express the truism that scientific research is, among other things, an elaborate type of human behaviour. It is, rather , to stress the relevance of the whole vocabulary of action when we are tal king of science. Consider what is involved in the application of the dramatic language, the language of action, to science. Ir science is a form of action, then it has a beginning, an original situation which the action is designed to remove or trans form. And it has an end - not only in the sense of a final condition towards which the investigation works, but in the sense of an immanent telos determining the nature of scientific action in moving from the origin to the end, in realising the possibility which provokes it.