By Paul Masson-Oursel, Helena Willman-Grabowska, Philippe Stern, C.K. Ogden
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Extra resources for Ancient India and Indian civilization
On the other hand, the clouds which form over the Indian Ocean water the west coast of the Deccan very plentifully ; but they are in great part caught by the Western Ghats, so that the eastern regions of the peninsula receive little rain. So the year falls into two very clearly marked seasons (that is the meaning of the Arabic mausim, which the Portuguese turned into monyiio, whence our "monsoon") -one from November to May, with prevalent north-easterly wind, cool in January (54·9° F. at Lahore, 77° F.
The sixth century before our era, in the course of which the two anti-Brahmanical " heresies " arose almost simultaneously, at the time when the Persian Empire was stretching out towards India, 2 was without any doubt a decisive epoch. Without going so far as to say, with Sir George Grierson, 1 2 LXXIVa, 48, 52. The Persian conquest of the Indus took place about 518, but Cyrus had previously reached and occupied Gandhara. THE BEGINNINGS OF HISTORY 25 that the Kauravas of the epic represent orthodoxy while the Pafichalas stand for tendencies outside the priesthood, we can take it for certain that Brahmanism was at the time passing through a crisis, and that in particular the Pandavas with their roughness and the Kauravas with their diplomacy bear witness to cultures of unequal refinement or to different mentalities.
Rapson holds that the Rigveda means copper by the word ayas (Latin aes), and that "black copper", syiima ayas, or iron, first appears in the Yajurveda and Atharvaveda. 1 It was the Aryans who introduced iron into the Deccan. The shapes of metal objects were at first copied from those of objects of stone and earthenware; thus progress must have been continuous in the use of one material after another and in the nature of the articles 1 LXXIU, p. 56. 17 c 18 HISTORY manufactured. No doubt the metal weapons and tools of the Aryans gave them an advantage over foemen who were still in the Stone Age.