By Keith Krause
This booklet analyzes the underlying constitution and dynamic forces that experience formed the overseas alternate in fingers from the improvement of army applied sciences within the 15th and 16th centuries to the twentieth-century revolutions in weaponry. the writer discusses the political, financial and army motivations that force states to supply and export palms, and examines the various ways that states reply to those motivations. through concentrating on the techniques of technological innovation and diffusion he's in a position to cartoon an evolutionary photograph of the diffusion of latest army expertise, and position the present hands exchange in ancient point of view.
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Extra resources for Arms and the State: Patterns of Military Production and Trade
One consequence, however, of such enclave industrial development is that the export market will be much more important than the almost-certainly limited domestic demand. This further increases competition between suppliers and decreases the political utility of arms transfers. Another consequence is that arms production will be concentrated in a few weapons systems, rather than spread across the board. While new military technologies are progressively diffusing throughout the system, continued incremental innovation occurs in first-tier states (and to a much lesser extent in the second tier).
This is the least widely distributed skill, possessed by only a few states in any historical epoch. These distinctions will reappear in the general description of the global distribution of arms production capabilities (and hence arms transfer patterns), for the degree of mastery of technologies I-IV is the limiting condition that dictates the structure of the arms transfer and production system. Technology as an exogenous variable There is broad agreement that possession of modern weapons is a key element in determining the international hierarchy of power, 19 EVOLUTION OF THE ARMS TRANSFER SYSTEM but less consensus on the dynamic aspect of this process.
An equally large gap should exist between states able to adapt weapons and those that have successfully captured the process of innovation itself, and here the problems of technological diffusion and innovation become linked. Technological innovation also requires available basic knowledge (experts and methods) and a social, cultural and political environment that discriminates in favour of the innovator. In the case of gunpowder, for example, the basic knowledge was widely available, but only in early modern Europe was this knowledge combined with existing metallurgical techniques to address a specific military problem.