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By J. Charles Alderson

This publication is the main entire and up to date therapy of the evaluation of analyzing in a overseas or moment language.

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According to Barry Troyna (1987: 313), one of the propositions central to multicultural education of this period was that of cultural relativism, which is the view that cultures can be evaluated internally only by those who share the beliefs and values of the particular culture in question. This commitment is clearly expressed in the fi nal quotation above from the Schools Council; in fact the request for different cultures to be ‘empathetically described’ not only entails that non-European cultures should not be criticised but that the beliefs, values and practices of other cultures should be regarded in a positive light and appreciated.

There is also the challenge of fi nding a suitable vocabulary to capture and express the character of social processes. The same explanatory concept can subsume different social influences and this in turn may lead to mistaken conclusions and inaccurate depictions of social change. José Casanova’s celebrated discussion of secularisation provides an illustration of a number of these points (see also Hanson 1997). In Public Religions in the Modern World (1994), he noted how the term ‘secularisation’ is used by social theorists to describe a range of different social processes, and this he argues leads to mistaken interpretations of the interaction between the forces of modernity and religion, and of course inaccurate predictions of the course of social change in societies that are in the process of modernising.

Alongside Muslims there are adherents of all the major ‘world’ religions and the diverse and numerous religious traditions and movements that one would expect to fi nd in a modern European, liberal democratic state with a colonial history. Altogether, however, as the table shows, less than 8 per cent of the population in Britain belong to a religion other than Christianity. 1 2011 Census: Collating data from the Censuses in England and Wales and in Scotland Religion England Buddhist Christian Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Other Religion Total No Religion Not stated 238,626 31,479,876 806,199 261,282 2,660,116 420,196 227,825 36,094,120 13,114,232 3,804,104 Scotland 6830 3,294,545 5564 6448 42557 6572 26974 3,389,490 1,394,460 278,061 Source: Census data collated by the author.

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