By Christian Grovermann
This research combines econometrics and agent-based modelling to guage the affects of a variety of pesticide use aid innovations within the context of Thai highland agriculture. Pesticide productiveness and pesticide overuse are quantified, whereas determinants of the adoption of suggestions in pesticide use relief are envisioned. On that foundation, the Mathematical Programming-based Multi Agent approach (MPMAS), a bio-economic simulation version, is used to ex-ante assess the adoption of built-in Pest administration (IPM) together with a sequence of market-based tools that enhance the transition to extra sustainable pest keep watch over practices. The MPMAS simulation effects reveal that, over 5 years, it's attainable to carry down degrees of pesticide use considerably with no source of revenue trade-offs for farm brokers. A proportional tax, expanding the cost of artificial insecticides via 50% on typical, including bio-pesticide subsidies for IPM proves to be the main within your budget and potential coverage package deal. IPM practices are followed by means of as much as seventy five% of farm brokers and pesticide use discount rates succeed in as much as 34%.
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Additional resources for Assessment of Pesticide Use Reduction Strategies for Thai Highland Agriculture: Combining Econometrics and Agent-based Modelling
Using these systems, a range of diverse farm types and individual behaviours can be modelled in space and time, which is a useful addition to the previous studies on crop protection policies. , 2006). , 2010). The MPMAS application used in this study was parameterized with farm and plot level data taken from intensive and diverse production systems in the mountainous north of Thailand, and in particular the Mae Sa watershed, where the adoption of cash crops has been accompanied by very high levels of pesticide use.
After 1967, a policy of free pesticide distribution was in place, to control major outbreaks, but this officially ended in 1999, though parts of it are still practiced. In 1991, the government got rid of import taxes on pesticides, so in contrast to fertilisers, pesticides receive an indirect subsidy. Also in 1999, Thailand adopted the international FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (FAO, 2002). Following the provisions set-out in the Code of Conduct, and in the Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions, an international treaty dealing with chemical pesticides, the Hazardous Substances Act, was promulgated in 1992 and revised in 2005.
Production functions were estimated for some of these groups based on similarities in terms of length of growing period, the pest problems experienced and the pest management activities used. In this context, greenhouse vegetables (including bell peppers and tomatoes) and leafy vegetables (cabbages, kale and lettuce) were the two most consistent groups, which is why they were used for the more detailed analysis of pesticide overuse. 4 Pest pressure, pest management and pesticide use in the study area The intensification of agriculture has been accompanied by heightened pest pressure and the development of pest resistance for some crops.