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By Heather Couper;Nigel Henbest

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A few are visible to the unaided eye, like the Andromeda Galaxy. It looks like a twin of the Milky Way, but is The Andromeda Galaxy nearly half as and over 2 million light years away. Although many galaxies are The shapes barred spirals, there are a few smaller ones which have not developed spiral arms. ft**"' "irregular" galaxies. Elliptical galaxies must have made all their gas into stars very early on. As a result, they are now huge featureless balls of old red stars. Quasars The most energetic of known A quasar -3C 273 all objects are the distant quasars.

These were named after objects or creatures which they resembled. As the Earth revolves around the Sun, different constellations appear, disappear and reappear at different times of the year. Early civilizations used the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon and stars around the Earth's sky to provide both a daily clock and a yearly calendar. Early sailors and explorers used the stars for navigation: different stars appeared in the sky if they traveled as far north or far south of their starting point.

A dying star which has run out of fuel. Most stars reach this stage after a brief spell as a red giant. White dwarf The force of attraction that acts between two objects. The more massive an object is, and the closer it is, the greater is Gravity gravitational force. its Index Ganymede Alpha Centauri 28 Andromeda Galaxy 36 Apollo astronauts asteroids gravity 14, 15, 26 18. 24 Orion 36,37 helium fusion 33 Betelguese 28, 31 Big Bang 37 black hole 33, 36 hydrogen 12, infrared radiation 30 6, 8, 9, 11, 30 Io24 Callisto 24 celestial fusion sphere centrifugal force chromosphere 26, 28, 17, 29 18, 10, 12, 14-15, 17 atmosphere 19, Moon 8, 14, 6, 8, ";ors 9, 21 - 14 Sirius28, 31 solar eclipse 17 15, 36 17,21 solar flares 13 Solar System 18-19, 20, 24, 25 solar "ecosphere" 20 wind 13, :2 Europe 24 34 Space Shuttle 37 gamma rays 6.

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