By Arnulfo G. Ramirez
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Extra info for Bilingualism Through Schooling: Cross Cultural Education for Minority and Majority Students
Elementary Program Design C Schools able to provide only a bilingual-monolingual team-teaching approach may consider the following program design, which requires bilingual aides in each classroom: 1. Begin only at the kindergarten level (or preschool level, depending on the school organization) and operate in all classrooms at that level. If possible, one-half of the students in each classroom should represent the dominant English-speaking culture. Organize the bilingual-monolingual teaching team in such a manner that each of the classrooms involved receives daily instruction from the monolingual Englishspeaking teacher during one-half of the day and instruction from the bilingual teacher during the other half.
Fishman (1982:2324) points out that transitional, compensatory bilingual education efforts in the United States may not be "conspicuously successful in importing English skills to marked student populations," but they do "provide children with teachers of their own ethnic extraction who can serve as role models'' and offer the possibility of "identificational mainstreaming" with the unmarked cultural group. Enrichment bilingual education, which constitutes about one-third of the worldwide bilingual enterprise, is generally associated with private and church school efforts (Fishman 1982).
Next page > < previous page page_42 next page > Page 42 Figure 4. Cohen's Model of Language Testing (1975, p. 9). < previous page page_42 If you like this book, buy it! next page > < previous page page_43 next page > Page 43 Figure 5. Representation of Bilingual Dominance Matrix. Reprinted, by permission, from P. A. Zirkel, "A Method for Determining and Depicting Language Dominance" TESOL Quarterly, 8:1 (March 1974): 12. While Zirkel's model explains bilingual dominance in relation to a series of continua composed of "quantifiable units," his concern for the speaker's ability to understand and use language appropriately (his stylistic category) in various situations reflects a context-sensitive view of language.