By Josiane F. Hamers
This up to date and revised version of Hamers and Blanc's profitable textbook provides new wisdom approximately languages involved from person bilinguality to societal bilingualism. it's multi- and interdisciplinary in procedure, and analyzes bilingualism at person, interpersonal, and societal degrees. Linguistic, cognitive and sociocultural facets of bilingual improvement are explored, as are bilingual difficulties. The authors conceal more than a few concerns together with the connection between tradition, id, and language habit in multicultural settings; communique recommendations in interpersonal and intergroup kinfolk; language shift; pidgins and creoles; language making plans; and bilingual schooling.
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Extra info for Bilinguality and Bilingualism
They are of limited usefulness for the measurement of bilinguality, as we cannot compare them with tests of mother-tongue competence; nonetheless, they are of interest in that they enable us to deﬁne levels of dominance in bilinguals, especially at an early stage in the development of bilingual competence. For example, two L dominant bilinguals can be distinguished as to their proﬁciency in L by means of these tests, which are useful for the identiﬁcation of stages in the development of a consecutive bilinguality resulting from L teaching pro gram.
According to group membership and cultural identity * For an explanation of L , L , L , L , see p. 372 (a) balanced bilinguality (b) dominant bilinguality 1. 1 Summary table of psychological dimensions of bilinguality (Hamers & Blanc, 1989) Dimensions of bilinguality and bilingualism 27 (1) The dimension of competence enables us to take into account the relative nature of bilinguality, since it focuses on the relationship between two linguistic competences, one in each language. A distinction has been made between the balanced bilingual who has equivalent competence in both languages and the dominant bilingual for whom competence in one of the languages, more often the mother tongue, is superior to his competence in the other (Lambert, 1955).
Using this technique, Lambert, Havelka & Gardner (1959) found signiﬁcant correlations between these measures and traditional linguistic measures of bilinguality. (b) Non-verbal decoding, verbal encoding. In this technique the subject is asked to respond verbally in one and then in the other language to non-verbal stimuli: for example, a subject is asked to name in each language pictorially presented objects (Ervin, 1964) or colours (Hamers, 1973). A diﬃculty with this type of measure is that the stimuli might not have the same cultural value in each language; for example, in a colour-naming task the two cultures may have diﬀerent ways of classifying and naming colours, as in the case of English, Bassa and Shona (H.