By Henry N. Houérou
Protecting a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent incorporates a fabulous geographic variety. for this reason, it's characterized via super variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to a variety of traditional plants and flora and fauna, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and cattle. during this publication, Henry Le Hou?rou provides his bioclimatic and biogeographic type of Africa. The large info give you the foundation for comparisons among a variety of African areas, and with areas on different continents resembling Latin the USA or the Indian subcontinent. the implications represent a rational foundation for nationwide, local and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural study facing points corresponding to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of purposes also are tested.
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Equal to or greater than rain-gauge values. Summer fog in South Africa is common in the Transvaal and Natal provinces: 18 “fog catcher” gauges yielded precipitations 105 to 280% in excess of those recorded with standard rain gauges (Nagel 1962). e. 33% more to rainfall at 1,800 m elevation on SW-facing slopes from October to March. W. Malawi at the border of Zambia, 146 fog days have been recorded per annum but the contribution in Fig. 26 (continued) e Pretoria (South Africa) Sub-humid subtropical agro-bioclimate with cool winters Lat.
9 °C ETo = 1,080 b Ifrane (Morocco) Humid Mediterranean agro-bioclimate with very cold winters Lat. 33°30′N P = 1,112 mm 2t = 259 mm Long. 35 ETo = 400 mm Elev. 0 °C ETo = 1,143 c Setif (Algeria) Semi-arid Mediterranean agro-bioclimate with cold winters Lat. 36°11′N P = 469 mm 2t = 334 mm Long. 35 ETo = 402 mm Elev. 3 °C ETo = 1,287 mm d Shahat (=Cyrene) (Libya) Sub-humid Mediterranean agro-bioclimate with temperate winters Lat. 32°49′N P = 539 mm 2t = 382 mm Long. 35 ETo = 419 mm Elev. 7 45 Other Geographic Factors Affecting Rainfall: the Role of Oceanic Currents Apart from elevation and latitude, other geographical factors may strongly influence rainfall, such as the orientation of coastlines with respect to rain-bearing winds.
1988). This figure shows that annual rainfall declined in the Sahel from the late 1960s to 1986, without any of these 17 years reaching the 1900–1968 mean. The rainfall decline in the Sahel is analyzed in Tables A4–A9. These data tend to show that the decline is less than often stated. It also shows that the decline decreases from N to S as the long-term mean increases but, surprisingly, also from W to E. Figure 10 clearly suggests that the Sahel great drought does not seem tied to the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation), contrary to other arid zones such as in Latin America, China, India and Australia (Nicholls 1987).