By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
This document examines the literature on organic results of publicity to modulated radiofrequency (RF) strength to figure out even if current publicity criteria and guidance must be changed additional to take modulation under consideration. Modulation happens in a wide selection of types really good for radar, instant communications, broadcast communications, and business strategies with the end result that many waveforms, pulse widths, spectral homes, and temporal styles want attention. In pulse modulation the RF power is swiftly switched off and on, while amplitude modulation produces a consistently altering point of RF power. Frequency-modulated RF power has sign amplitudes that stay primarily consistent, yet fluctuate in frequency inside of a few narrowly prescribed diversity and extra heavily resembles nonmodulated RF power than pulsed or amplitude modulated RF fields. For radar, pulses mostly have intervals measured in fractions of a microsecond to some microseconds. periods among pulses (or pulse teams) are significantly longer leading to low accountability cycle, that's, RF strength is on for a small fraction of time in the course of each one interval. yet pulsed indications used for communications platforms may have intervals within the diversity of milliseconds, greater accountability cycles, and extra modulation positive factors. really expert army platforms represent a subcategory with very extreme, short pulses.
desk of Contents
2. In vitro stories
three. In vivo reports
four. Human reviews
five. Epidemiological stories
6. Biophysical concerns
7. dialogue and Conclusions
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Additional info for Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields
De Seze et al. (1998) found that GSM cellular telephones do not disturb the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland in humans. Nine weekly samples of blood from 20 healthy male volunteers were studied for various hormones after 2 h d–1, 5 d week–1, onemonth exposure. The study showed no significant effect in hormone secretion. 7 Hz for 3 s, followed by no-field for 1s The pattern of exposure induced sleep in 15 min as compared to no effect of sham exposure (doubleblind study) Reite et al.
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1 W kg –1 when tested immediately following exposure. Another study evaluated behavior subsequent to exposure. Akyel et al. (1991) exposed male rats to high peak-power pulses and measured subsequent operant schedule performance. 84 to 23 W kg –1. 5 °C. 1 °C or less. The lower SARs had no effect on behavior tested after the exposures. D’Andrea et al. 318 kW m–2, 3 µs pulse width, 2 to 32 pps). 80 W kg –1 depending on the pulse repetition rate. 4 Pa per pulse with the predominant waveform frequency of 25 kHz.