Download Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA by Richard C. Lewontin PDF

By Richard C. Lewontin

Following within the type of Stephen Jay Gould and Peter Medawar, one of many world's top scientists examines how "pure science" is actually formed and guided via social and political wishes and assumptions.

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With this hypothesis, Minkowski's four-dimensional space would be just the real part of a complex eight-dimensional space-time. What would this lead to? Let us begin with a simple analogy. Suppose you were living in a two-dimensional space, such as the surface of a table, and there were a hole in the table, and you wanted to look into the hole. To do that, you would need to have access, physically, to a vertical dimension which was not part of your own space. Cosmos and Consciousness 47 Now suppose that what is called the world line resembles a spiral.

This implies, however, that atomic and subatomic matter is fundamentally "restless". Most of the material particles are confined by the molecular, atomic, and nuclear structures, and therefore they are never completely at rest. According to quantum theory, matter is never quiescent, but always in a state of The Tao of Physics 25 motion. The closer we look at it, the more alive it appears: the molecules vibrate according to their temperature and in harmony with the thermal vibrations of their environment.

Thus more and more phenomena may gradually be covered with ever-increasing accuracy by a mosaic of interlocking models. The adjective "bootstrap" is thus never appropriate for any individual model, but can be applied only to a combination of mutually consistent models, none of which is any more fundamental than the others. In the words of Geoffrey Chew, the originator of the bootstrap idea, "a physicist who is able to view any number of different, partially successful, models without favoritism is automatically a bootstrapper".

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