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By J. E. Spice and J. E. Spice (Auth.)

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Quite simply, the driving force may be said to be the tendency for all atoms to attain the same electronic arrangement as that of the nearest rare gas. Rare gases have virtually no chemical combining power, a circumstance which has already been attributed to all the electrons of their atoms being in completely filled shells. Thus, sodium has one electron more than neon, while fluorine has one electron less. Transfer of one electron from sodium to fluorine therefore gives both atoms the same number of electrons (10) as neon, but because the transfer has not affected the nuclei, the sodium atom + has become N a and the fluorine F ~ .

Any moving electric charge constitutes an electric current, and thus produces a magnetic field. Classical physics shows that the magnetic moment associated with a particle of charge e9 mass m9 and angular momentum p9 is ep/2mc9 where c is the velocity of light. According to the quantum theory, the unit of angular momentum is h/2n9 so that the unit magnetic moment should be eßmcxhßn, or ehjAnmc. According to wave mechanics, the total orbital angular momentum of an electron is > / [ / ( / + 1 ) ] .

Those of the former class lose electrons in attaining a rare gas configuration and are metals, while those of the latter class gain electrons and are non-metals. The valency of all these elements may be identified with the number of electrons gained or lost in forming an ion with a rare gas configuration of electrons. Application of the principle that the total number of positive charges in a compound must equal the total number of negative charges, then gives the correct formula. A list of ions with a rare gas configuration is given in Table 4.

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