By J Gray, H Hammond, G Dence
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Chemical pretreatment of nuclear wastes refers back to the series of separations procedures used to partition such wastes right into a small quantity of high-level waste for deep geologic disposal and a bigger quantity of low-level waste for disposal in a near-surface facility. Pretreatment of nuclear wastes now saved at a number of U.
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A very common decay process is that known as phosphorescence, such as is observed of certain substances called phosphors. This process is deactivation of an electronically excited molecule to its ground state with a concomitant conversion of electronic energy to light energy, which is transferred to the environment in the form of emitted light. Rates of decay follow an experimental rate law of the form: Rate of decay = k[A] where k is the rate constant, usually given in sec71, and [A] is the concentration of the decaying species.
K. + RBr + KBr + R. The study of exceedingly fast reactions in solution has become an active field of research in the last decade. Indeed, it was for their pioneering efforts in this field that Manfred Eigen, George Porter, and Ronald G. W. Norrish won the 1967 Nobel prize in chemistry. Aided by increased familiarity with electronic instrumentation, chemists are able to study reactions, for example, involving only the transfer of an electron in reactions between gaseous ions and molecules. Results obtained from these studies have immediate implications in the field of electrochemical rate processes.
Several new and elegant types of experiments have been devised with this view in mind. These include study of gas phase reactions of small molecules, under closely controlled conditions, measurement of the rates of fast reactions in solution and at electrodes, and some interesting studies that are half-experiment and half-theory, namely, electronic computer calculations of classical mechanical collision trajectories. The first group includes studies in shock tubes, in flash photolyses, in gaseous flow systems, and studies of crossed-molecular beams.