By William C. Anderson P.E., DEE (auth.), William C. Anderson P.E., DEE (eds.)
This monograph on chemical therapy is certainly one of a chain of 8 on cutting edge web site and waste remediation applied sciences which are the fruits of a multi association attempt related to greater than a hundred specialists over a yr interval. It presents the skilled, practising specialist advice at the program of cutting edge tactics thought of prepared for full-scale software. different monographs during this sequence deal with bioremediation, soil washing/soil flushing, solvent chemical extraction, stabilization/ solidifica tion, thermal desorption, thermal destruction, and vacuum vapor extraction. 7. 7 Chemical therapy The time period chemical therapy, as utilized in this monograph, refers back to the use of reagents to damage or chemically regulate aim contaminants via potential except pyrolysis or combustion. The monograph addresses strategies that chemically deal with infected soils, groundwaters, floor waters, and, to a constrained quantity, centred contaminants. Chemical remedy is a method of changing damaging parts into much less environmentally ob jectionable types for you to meet therapy goals. This monograph addresses substitution, oxidation, and chemical precipi tation methods. It addresses techniques inside those sessions which are suffi ciently complicated for full-scale software. there are many rising applied sciences inside of those periods which are within the examine or an early devel opment level, no longer but prepared for full-scale software, that seem to be very promising technologically. Six such applied sciences are in brief addressed in Appendix A.
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As explained below, ali commercial substitution processes convert the contaminant into an unregulated form by replacing one or more halogen atoms on the target molecule (a PCB, for example) with another functional group, such as an ether. The resultant compound is, at present, unregulated, but its environmental impact still needs to be considered. Complete replacement with hydrogen (as claimed for the Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) process) may not always be desirable. For example, if all chlorine atoms on chlorobenzene are replaced with hydrogen, benezene, a known carcinogen, is formed.
10 Chapter2 processes are based on hydroxyl free radical chemistry, chemical interactions are highly nonspecific and nonselective. Rates of destruction vary with such factors as the nature of the contaminant mixture, pH, concentration of contaminants, presence of scavengers, and inorganic nature. Oxidation processes do not work well in the presence of free radical scavengers, such as bicarbonate and carbonate ions. The scavengers consume the ozone and hydrogen peroxide, and inhibit the effect of the UV radiation.
It is important to note that the stability constants reported in the technical literature can vary by several orders of magnitude. 32). Patterson (1988) points out that the shape of the cadmium hydroxide solubility curve (as a function of pH) can vary significantly, depending on the particular stability constants chosen. Chemical precipitation processes offer significant potential for removing soluble ionic species from solution, particularly heavy metals. The technique is not generally applicable in treatment of contaminated soils.