By A. D. Danilov (auth.)
I was once more than pleased to benefit that Plenum Press has determined to post an English version of Chemistry of the Ionosphere. even though the e-book was once principally meant for the Soviet reader as a way to fill a few gaps in Russian-language reports on aeronomic difficulties, i'm hoping that it can be important to overseas experts engaged in iono spheric study in addition. obviously, through the time which has elapsed because the education of the Russian version new stories were released on the earth literature at the difficulties handled during this publication. an important of those are famous within the ap pendix to this version, yet a few difficulties (for instance, with appreciate to the physics of unfavourable ions within the decrease ionosphere) require a thorough reexamination, which can't be performed in a quick appendix. i'll be happy if e-book of the e-book in English will as sist in removal a few of the at present latest ambiguities in uncomplicated difficulties of higher surroundings chemistry. A. D. Danilov Preface to the Russian variation 1 within the final decade excellent successes were accomplished within the examine of the earth's top surroundings through use of rockets and synthetic satellites. those investigations have made it transparent that the higher surroundings (and quite the ionospheric sector at altitudes 100-1000 km) is a significantly extra advanced formation than might be visualized ahead of the arrival of lively experiences with area vehicles.
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This makes it possible to investigate the variation in atmospheric ion composition in the considered region of altitudes with time of day and solar activity (see Chap. 5). c. Region H > 200 km. A detailed investigation of atmospheric ions in the region 200-700 km was made by Istomin [53, 54J using data from the third Soviet satellite. The author detected a rapid vertical decrease in the concentrations of NO+, ot, and molecular ions and an increase in the relative concentrations of o and W atomic ions.
21, 1958 March 23, 1958 Aug. 2, 1958 Aug. 13, 1958 July 22, 1959 April 29, 1960 June 15, 1960 Nov. 15,1960 Nov. 15,1961 Feb. 15, 1963 Aug. 5 210 233 170 270 250 230 178 140 166 175 100 70 70 Johnson et aL  V. G. Istomin  Johnson et at  Johnson et aL  V. G. Istomin  V. G. Istomin V. G. Istomin  Taylor and Brinton  V. G. Istomin [49J Taylor and Brinton  A. A. Pokhunkov  Holmes et aLe 52] Holmes et al. 7 cm, expressed in W1m 2 . Hz· sec, was used as an indicator).
The authors used data from the rocket experiments of Tousey et al. , Hinteregger , Friedman , Byram et al. [34J, and Kreplin  in an investigation of solar UV radiation intensity. The values of the 0, 02' and N2 ionization cross sections and the cross sections of absorption of radiation with different wavelengths by these particles were taken from reviews by Weissler [36J and Watanabe . The total ionization rate at altitudes oflOO-400 km obtained in [311 for four solar 36 ELEMENT ARY PROCESSES IN THE IONOSPHERE [CHAP.