By Arun Kumar Sharma
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During the primary effect, the entire molecule combines with the amino groups of proteins. In the secondary phase, the compound formed undergoes oxidation, during which the residual part of osmium tetroxide is reduced to a lower oxide or hydroxide. Due to this, the tissue fixed in osmium tetroxide turns black. Criegee (1936) attributed blackening to the oxidation of double bonds between adjacent c a r b o n a t o m s (cf. Wigglesworth, 1957). Bahr (1955) obtained positive reaction of osmium tetroxide with several amino acids and noted that the reaction of amines is directly proportional to chain length, whereas aldehydes and ketones are reactive only in long chains.
And D a t t a , A. (1956). 0yton 6, 71 S h a r m a , A. K. and D e , D . (1954). Caryologia 6, 180 S h a r m a , A. K. a n d D e , D . (1956). 0yton 6, 23 Sharma, A. K. and Mookerjea, A. (1954). Caryologia 6, 52 S h a r m a , A. K. and Mookerjea, A. (1955). Stain Tech. 30, 1 S h a r m a , A. K. and Sarkar, A. (1963). Revta port. Zool. Biol. ger. 4, 29 S h a r m a , A. K. a n d Sarkar, S. (1955). Nature 176, 261 S h a r m a , A. K. and Sarkar, S. (1956). Caryologia 8, 240 S h a r m a , A. K. a n d Sarkar, S.
While ethanol causes heavy shrinkage of chromosomes, methanol causes swelling and this property has been used advantageously in the preparation of fixatives where a swelling agent is often needed to compensate for the shrinking effect of other chemicals. Its effective concentrations are the same as ethanol. It is a colourless poisonous liquid and is miscible with water in all proportions. It should not be used with an oxidising agent, as it is then immediately oxidised to formic acid. In properties, it closely resembles ethanol, except for the fact that the oxidation products of the two chemicals are different and methanol does not give the haloform reaction given by ethanol.