By E. Molinari, A. Compare, G. Parati
This comprehensve evaluation of medical learn helping facts of the connection among cardiac illness and mental situation bargains functional feedback for constructing a scientific perform, and proposes instructions for destiny study within the new box of "cardiac psychology". each bankruptcy is written through world-renowned researchers within the box. A theoretical and useful advisor, it is going to curiosity physicians, scientific and health and wellbeing psychologists, and all execs who search to appreciate the mind-health hyperlink.
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Wolff and Wolf ,almost two decades later,introduced a mental stressor (stressful interview) instead of a physical stressor to test cardiovascular reactivity. Behaviorally induced cardiovascular reactivity was still viewed simply as a marker of future hypertension rather than being causally related to it. Although in some investigations a difference in reactivity was demonstrated in essential hypertensive subjects undergoing a wide array of psychological stimulations - including stressful interviews, mental arithmetic tests as well as the induction of fear or anger [20-24] - a number of other studies revealed that essential hypertensive patients showed similar blood pressure and heart rate increases to mental stressors compared to normotensive subjects [25-29].
By modifying these factors, it was hoped that a reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality could be achieved. This approach was bound up from the start with the principle of intervention. The first and most famous research project was the Framingham study. Launched in 1948 in the small town of Framingham, Massachusetts, by 1952 the study already had more than 5000 healthy people on its books. A whole series of long-term 1 The mechanistic conceptual model of medicine (the so-called mechanical paradigm), dating back to the 17th and 18th centuries, is based on a body-soul dualism, which is responsible for the psychosocial aspects of disease.
36 Part I - Psychological Risk Factors for Cardiac Disease ■ Introduction Although behavioral and psychological factors have been repeatedly related to cardiovascular disease in the context of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies, the mechanisms by which either intermittent or sustained stress, as well as psychological illness, may lead to hypertension and coronary artery disease are not yet fully understood. Historically, Hines and Brown [5, 6], back in early 30s, reported their first observations on cardiovascular reactivity.