By M. Graf, D. Barrettino, H.P. Baltes, A. Hierlemann
The 1st finished textual content on microhotplate-based chemical sensor structures in CMOS-technology covers all facets of winning sensor prototyping: theoretical concerns for modelling, controller- and approach layout, simulation of circuits and microsensors, layout issues, microfabrication, packaging and trying out. an entire kin of metal-oxide established microsensor structures with expanding complexity is gifted, together with absolutely built-in sensor arrays. This represents one of many first examples of built-in nanomaterials, microtechnology and embedded circuitry.
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Additional info for CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors (Microtechnology and MEMS)
15 a micrograph of a nitride layer deposited on a bare silicon wafer is shown. As can be seen from the interference pattern, the thickness in the membrane center is fairly homogeneous. The layer thickness decreases towards the edges. 5 µm thick silicon nitride layer. Mixed-frequency deposition of the nitride is one possibility to adjust the stress in the deposited layer . kHz) plasma can be varied during the process. For the layer used here 95% high-frequency deposition time was chosen (Fig.
27) T 26 3 Thermal Modelling of CMOS Microhotplates where c denotes the total heat capacitance of the microhotplate at the reference temperature, T . 30) c ċ the solution as: with where Tf denotes the ﬁnal temperature and Ti the initial temperature. For a heating process starting at ambient temperature, Eq. 31) which is equivalent to a linearized version of Eq. 24). The time constant in Eq. 32) which can be determined by measuring the temporal behavior of the microhotplate temperature. The experimental time constant is calculated from a dynamic measurement curve using a ﬁt based on Eq.
8) The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Eq. 8) corresponds to a two-dimensional heat ﬂux. The second part has, in this model, the physical interpretation of a local heat sink or source perpendicular to the x-y-plane. 9) The power generation term on the right-hand side of Eq. 10) As already mentioned, the thickness of the membrane is much smaller than the lateral dimensions. This motivates the assumption that the temperature across the mem- 22 3 Thermal Modelling of CMOS Microhotplates brane is approximately constant in the z-direction, which modiﬁes Eq.