By Mike Brake
Mike Brake means that subcultures advance based on social difficulties which a gaggle stories jointly, and indicates how participants draw on collective identities to outline themselves.
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Extra info for Comparative Youth Culture: The Sociology of Youth Cultures and Youth Subcultures in America, Britain and Canada
The transition from school to work, from unattachment to commitment in emotional relationships, from work as peripheral to work as central to existence, and the influence all these have on identity are important in understanding the social relations young people have to production. The reality of violence which runs through young, working-class, male culture needs to be understood not just as the response to brutalising circumstances, but both as a role and an identity in a masculine career structure, and a muffled and semiarticulate form of communication.
28) is a ‘transitory phase between the world of childhood and the adult world’. Youth groups in the structural-functionalist model appear at moments of ‘disintegrating’ with a ‘reintegrating’ function. They do not seek to change society, but to re-enter it. Parsons (1942) has also taken a similar view towards youth culture, seeing it as particular to American society, with an emphasis of a possible dysfunctional nature on having a good time, emphasising ‘its recalcitrance to the pressure of adult expectations and discipline’.
For example, what does the ‘British way of life’ offer to a black unemployed teenager, born in South London, whose experience of the country he was born in is framed in overt and covert racism? Youth itself, then, is not a problem, although certain of its subcultures may be seen as a threat. There are problems for youth, however, created for example by the conscription of the majority of them into the lower strata of a meritocratic educational system which then trains them for occupations which are meaningless, poorly paid and uncreative.