By Katalin Miklóssy, Melanie Ilic
This publication explores how the idea that of "competition", that is often linked to industry economies, operated less than nation socialism within the Soviet Union and japanese Europe, the place the socialist procedure, in response to command fiscal making plans and state-centred keep watch over over society, was once presupposed to emphasise "co-operation", instead of aggressive mechanisms. The booklet considers festival in a much broader diversity of industries and social fields around the Soviet bloc, and exhibits how the sluggish adoption and edition of Western practices ended in the emergence of extra open competitiveness in socialist society. The e-book comprises dialogue of the state’s view of festival, and focuses particularly on how festival operated on the grassroots point. It covers politico-economic reforms and their effect, either total and on the firm point; festival within the cultural sphere; and the large impact of accelerating pageant on socialist methods of thinking.
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Humanism became the universalistic ideology of communism per se and was considered non-existent in bourgeois capitalist countries. The programme adopted at the XXII Con gress of the CPSU in 1961 stated that the realisation of the humanist ideals of humanity is linked to the construction of communism in the Soviet Union. Needless to say, the propagation of Soviet or socialist ethics and the creation of the discipline of ethics in Soviet universities did not reflect an interest in humanism and ethics as such, but reflected an ideological goal to prove the superiority of the Soviet system in its competition with capitalism.
21 The other main argument presented for the re-formulation was that prices needed to offer information to customers. Consumer choice meant that price ratios for different types of goods 'must reflect quality relations, the extent of mutual changeability and efficiency of using different products for the consumer'. However, the main obstacle to applying this in price formation was 'the lack of reliable indicators that sufficiently characterise consumer choice of each kind of product'. The critical arguments then moved to a more overtly ideological level, defining profitability equal to investments as non-socialist.
These were seen as important prerequisites for the structural reform of the Soviet economy, where growth had begun slowing down in the early 1960s. On the other hand, the US motivation for detente was based, somewhat paradoxically, on an attempt to increase its own freedom of manoeuvre. The war in Vietnam, quickly escalated by the Americans after 1964, soon began to be a growing burden. However, the relative strengthening of the Soviet posi tion could be controlled and balanced by opening relations with China, and agreeing on certain arms limitations and political treaties with the Soviets, mainly regarding Europe.