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By Valerie Adams

Complex phrases in English provides a accomplished account of present-day notice formation in English. beginning with a dialogue of a few uncomplicated concerns, together with the definition of 'word', motivation, lexicalization, productiveness, the relevance of historic details and the usefulness of dictionaries and different data-bases, the e-book then strikes directly to describe intimately various prefixing, suffixing and compounding styles - all illustrated with copious up to date examples. different themes which are explored in-depth comprise diminutives, backformation and different results of reanalysis, Latin and Greek established formations and sound symbolism.

Many examples are given in context: contemporary writing and the files of OED on CD ROM are drawn directly to exhibit the connection among spontaneous coinages and prevalent goods. the great assurance permits an instructive evaluate and comparability of styles and of the numerous and numerous components suitable to the inspiration of productiveness. all through, the discussions are put within the context of alternative fresh and not more contemporary paintings within the quarter and the publication additionally encompasses a priceless large bibliography.

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The link between reversative and negative is clear in expressions like 'an unlocked door', in which the participial adjective can denote either the reversed result of an action (unlock-ed) or a negative state (un-locked). 41; de la Cruz 1975,63). Like un-, dis- is reversative in 42 COMPLEX WORDS IN ENGLISH verbs (disconnect) and negative in adjectives (disloyal). Dis- is related to quantitative di- (Latin and Greek 'two'); as reversative, it can suggest 'separation' (disconnect), and as negative, 'division' (dissimilar) and 'opposition' (disagree).

She shrilled' (Cobuild). Two other examples are gloom in '''When I have outlived my usefulness, I will be phased out," he gloomed' (Guardian: 1992), and idle in 'The woodbox was low and Jody idled outside to fill it' (OED: 1938). The 'way' construction illustrated in the previous section makes a verb suave possible in ' ... as I was suaving my way to Lingerie in a large store in the Rue de Rivoli' (Guardian: 1994). Further examples in 'zero', -en, -ize and -ify are: blind, brown, clear, cool, dim, idle, muddy, narrow, open, pale, quiet, shut, slack, slim, slow, sober, steady, tan, tense, thin, warm, waterproof, yellow blacken, brighten, broaden, dampen, deafen, darken, deepen, fatten, flatten, harden, neaten, quicken, redden, ripen, sharpen, shorten, sicken, soften, stiffin, sadden, tauten centralize, criminalize, equalize, familiarize, formalize, normalize, popularize, radicalize, spiritualize, tenderize, trivialize, tranquillize, vulgarize, westernize aridify, complexify, diversify, falsify, humidify, intensify, purify, rigidify, simplify, solidify.

Another suffix, -en, has often been noted as attaching only to bases which meet certain strict phonological conditions. Bases are monosyllabic and end in a single plosive, fricative or affricate. No other consonants occur, a restriction not shared by denominal adjectives in -en (woollen) or past participles (fallen): *greenen, *greyen, *pooren, *tallen. No consonant clusters are allowed: moisten and soften have no [t]. In fact, these restrictions are not absolute: crispen is current, cf. 'autumn's tang crispens the air' (OED: 1985), and among over thirty nineteenth-century formations recorded in OED TRANSPOSITION are dimmen and dullen.

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