By Michael Stewart Foley
Laying off gentle on a misunderstood type of competition to the Vietnam conflict, Michael Foley tells the tale of draft resistance, the innovative of the antiwar circulate on the top of the war's escalation. not like so-called draft dodgers, who left the rustic or manipulated deferments, draft resisters brazenly defied draft legislation by way of burning or handing over their draft playing cards. Like civil rights activists ahead of them, draft resisters invited prosecution and imprisonment. targeting Boston, one of many movement's such a lot trendy facilities, Foley finds the the most important function of draft resisters in moving antiwar sentiment from the margins of society to the heart of yank politics. Their activities encouraged different draft-age males against the war--especially collage students--to re-examine their position of privilege in a draft procedure that provided them protections and despatched disproportionate numbers of working-class and minority males to Vietnam. This reputation sparked the swap of strategies from criminal protest to mass civil disobedience, drawing the Johnson management right into a disagreement with activists who have been principally suburban, liberal, younger, and heart class--the middle of Johnson's Democratic constituency. studying the daily fight of antiwar organizing conducted via traditional american citizens on the neighborhood point, Foley argues for a extra complicated view of citizenship and patriotism in the course of a time of battle.
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Someone repeatedly slapped eighteenyear-old Suzanne Williams in the face. David Benson clung to the cold steel rail that bisected the steps while at least four young men pounded him at once. Phillips later remembered: ‘‘I saw one person going down in front of me so I grabbed him and . . ’’ Three government agents who had inﬁltrated the crowd to witness the card burning (two from the fbi and one from the army’s Criminal Investigation Division) were knocked down as they attempted to guide the paciﬁsts up the stairs away from the mob and into the building.
Miller was the ﬁrst person to challenge the new law against card burning, and his picture ran on the front pages of newspapers across the country. ’’ Clearly, he had missed Miller’s point. As evidenced by his easy submission to arrest, trial, and imprisonment, Miller did not try to ‘‘avoid’’ anything; rather, he intended to set an example for others who viewed the war as immoral and who believed it was their duty as citizens to disobey any laws that perpetuated that immorality. S. policy. S.
But famous, wealthy, white men were not the only safe ones; more glaring were the millions of college and graduate students who held deferments while those who could not go to college faced the draft. Bill Clinton, a young Arkansan studying at Georgetown University, beneﬁted from just such a deferment. As an undergraduate, the future president dodged the draft the same way millions of other college men did: legally. ’’ Students in college, they assumed, were being educated for the future beneﬁt of the nation, whereas gas station attendants and construction workers were not.