By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
This booklet goals to supply a radical and wide-ranging creation to methods to morphology in linguistic idea during the last 20 years. This entire survey concentrates not just at the generative linguistic mainstream, yet on ways which are much less trendy or really unknown to English-speaking linguists, and highlights fresh ecu, relatively German-speaking examine.
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This reduction has to be set against the ‘cost’ of referring to the rule itself, however. So, in Jackendoff’s terms, what one wants is a formula whereby the more widely a redundancy rule applies, the cheaper it is to refer to. The formula he in fact proposes is the following (1975: 666): (22) The cost of referring to redundancy rule R in evaluating a 36 Current Morphology lexical entry W is I R,Wx P R,W, where IR,W is the amount of information in W predicted by R, and PR, W is a number between 0 and 1 measuring the regularity of R in applying to the derivation of W.
In ‘Remarks’ he rejects this assumption. He points out that, with the framework for lexical entries introduced in Aspects, it is an empirical question whether the similarities between, for example, John refused to come and John’s refusal to come are better accounted for by transformations (deriving the latter from the syntactic structure underlying the former, essentially) or lexically, by appeal to the subcategorization and selectional and semantic features of a single lexical item refuse which is neutral between nominal and verbal status.
This question is not discussed in ‘Remarks’, however. 4 Halle’s ‘Prolegomena to a theory of word formation’ As its name implies, Halle’s ‘Prolegomena to a theory of word formation’ (1973) is primarily concerned with the internal structure of morphologically complex words. Even so, Halle’s view of word formation still assigns a crucial role to the lexicon, in something like Chomsky’s sense. Word formation is not an extension of syntax ‘below’ the level of the word; indeed, Halle is at pains to emphasise differences between word structure and sentence structure which militate against any such view.