By Roland Willemyns
Greater than 22 million humans converse Dutch-primarily in Holland, Belgium, Suriname, and the Antilles. This booklet bargains a well-researched and hugely readable survey of the language in all its old, geographic, and social points. as well as offering a normal advent to the evolution of Dutch, Willemyns can pay unique awareness to oft-neglected subject matters, reminiscent of the query of even if Dutchmen and Flemings are separated by means of a standard language, and the contentious topic of the unfold of Dutch in another country via colonization, which ended in "exotic" adaptations equivalent to Afrikaans, pidgins, and creoles.
Dutch: Biography of a Language will attract scholars of Dutch and basic readers drawn to the background of the language.
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Extra resources for Dutch: Biography of a Language
The more likely it is to occur in intraposed position’ (cf. a. Hinterhölzl 2006: 15). 4 below), predicting its occurrence to extend beyond Germanic (see also Biberauer and Sheehan 2012). For present purposes, the important point is that structures like (36) are, like those involving nominal and adpositional complements, clearly amenable to a leftward movement analysis of the sort an antisymmetric analysis would lead us to expect. a. Hinterhölzl (2006, this volume) for German, Haegeman (1998) for West Flemish, Baker (2005) for Lokaa, Biberauer (2003) for Afrikaans, and Biberauer and Roberts (2008) for West Germanic generally.
E. it c-commands all other nodes), then it follows that movement will always be leftwards (see Sheehan 2010 for an LCA-compatible account of extraposition). Kayne also notes other word-order asymmetries which similarly derive from the lack of rightward movement, such as the apparent lack of verbpenultimate languages and penultimate position effects more generally (cf. Kayne 1994 for further examples). A ﬁnal example which is worthy of note concerns the apparent lack of wh-movement in OV languages.
Emonds’ central claim is that the universal default word order of natural language requires complements (and speciﬁers, which he views as a kind of complement) to precede heads. This is, in some respects, reminiscent of proposals by Haider, whose Basic Branching Constraint (BBC) also establishes head-ﬁnal structures as the default option (cf. a. Haider 2000b for discussion and references). For Emonds, exceptions to the complement–head pattern are, however, possible, subject to UG principles and only in ‘free’ domains, deﬁned as follows: (24) Free domain Domain Y is free if (i) no daughter of Y is an obligatorily bound morpheme and (ii) at least one daughter is an Xj that can further project, where X = N, V, A, P and j = 0 or 1.