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By W. D. Halls

Language:Chinese.EDUCATION. tradition AND POLITICS IN glossy FRANCE (map)

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Therefore ingrained attitudes must be eradicated: those of the bourgeoisie who regard technical education still as manual and therefore degrading; those of their student offspring who view industrial technology as the symbol of their future enslavement to work. Hence compulsory technical education in the lower secondary school, the institution of technical lycées and colleges, the creation of university institutes of technology, to mention only three expedients of the Gaullist régime in its attempt to integrate technology into a new concept of "culture générale".

This tradition has continued. In 1971—1972 there were some three and a half Local Administration, Schools and School Administration 55 million pupils in secondary schools of all kinds, of which some 10 per cent were full boarders. This, incidentally, represented a decrease of 5 per cent over the previous five years. Although there has been a decline in boarding in lower secondary education, in upper secondary education the proportion of boarders has remained unchanged: 25 per cent of pupils in the colleges of technical education and 20 per cent in lycées; in the special post-baccalaureate classes in the lycées, comprising pupils preparing for entrance to the grandes écoles, the proportion of boarders is as high as 26 per cent.

Each academy is headed by a Rector, who is the representative of the central Ministry in Paris. The Rector is not responsible to the various "préfets" who are the political representatives of the départements in his academy. His main task is to act as the channel through which all instructions from the central government must pass and to see that they are implemented. delaying power" of decision in regard to them. He has the oversight of all primary and secondary schools in his area, is responsible for allocating staff to them and generally controls all personnel.

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