By Ionel Rosenthal Ph.D. (auth.)
This ebook has been written for these whose pursuits bridge nutrients processing and physicochemical points of radiation. it isn't meant to be a complete assessment of courses touching on meals and radiations. as an alternative, it really is an try and familiarize the reader with pertinent wisdom of a unified, interdisciplinary suggestion of varied electromagnetic radiations and corresponding results on meals. attention used to be given to similarities and fluctuate ences among a number of segments of the electromagnetic spectrum. The huge process of this ebook was once thought of to be the most important for cross-discipline comparisons. The reader is brought to the electromagnetic spectrum within the Prologue after which the ebook follows the wavelengths, from brief to lengthy values. bankruptcy 1 bargains with ionizing radiation: historic historical past, assets of radiation hired in meals remedy, devices of dimension, and basics of radiation chemistry. A survey of power purposes of ionizing radiation in nutrients know-how is via an outline of equipment for radiation dosimetry. security and wholesomeness of irradiated meals, analytical equipment for postirradiation dosimetry in meals, and buyer reputation of nutrients irradiation finish this part. bankruptcy 2 intrudes into the following phase of the spectrum: extremely violet-visible radiation. the overall presentation of this electro magnetic emission and illumination resource allows the dialogue of its results on meals, together with purposes in nutrients analysis.
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Extra info for Electromagnetic radiations in food science
The common elements, hydrogen, 160 and 12C, which predominate in living matter including food, require more energetic levels of radiation to become radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon which can appear above the allowed levels under the influence of high-energy radiation are short lived, their half-lives being between 2 to 21 min. Over the past years many wholesomeness tests have been carried out to prove that irradiation products are safe for consumption. Experiments on the response of experimental animals and humans have been conducted to investigate the nutritional quality of food treated with ionizing energy under conditions that could be used commercially.
The accumulated data indicate that ionizing radiation has some potential for applications to food production, but also has limitations of an economical, technological, and consumer acceptability nature. The suggested applications in food technology are categorized according to the radiation dose employed; this generally varies with both the objective of the treatment and the type of food (Table 6). The literature on food processing by radiation has been extensively reviewed (Elias and Cohen 1977, 1983; Urbain 1978b; Anon.
Avoidance of induced radioactivity is a basic requirement of the food irradiation process. Stable nuclei can be made unstable, or artificially radioactive, by the introduction of energetic particles such as electrons, neutrons, protons, etc. High-energy gamma rays are also capable of producing excited atoms which disintegrate by radioactive decay. To prevent the inducement of nuclear change in the constituent elements of the food, thus causing the food to became radioactive, it is necessary to limit the energy level of the radiation employed.