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By J. Muldoon

Empire is an evocative, but little tested, be aware. it could suggest the domination of sizeable territories, a Christian international order, a corrupt kind of executive, or a humanitarian endeavour. Historians relegate the concept that of empire to the pre-modern international, settling on the kingdom because the attribute political kind of the trendy international. This publication examines the diversity of meanings attributed to the idea that of empire within the medieval and early glossy global, demonstrating how the innovations of empire and country constructed in parallel, now not sequentially.

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Extra info for Empire and Order: The Concept of Empire, 800–1800

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34 The language of the capitulary suggests that when Charlemagne spoke of the totality of his possessions, he used the terms kingdom and empire, suggesting that taken together the lands of his sons formed a single unit, a kingdom and yet more than a kingdom, an empire. 35 When referring to the lands awarded to each of his sons, however, he always used the term regnum alone. Furthermore, Charlemagne did not distinguish the status of any one of sons in this division. The three sons were in a sense three royal co-rulers of the Carolingian empire.

Furthermore, Gregory’s actions were upsetting the social order, because he had ‘armed subjects against their prelates’. In effect, Henry was accusing Gregory of turning the world upside down, seeking to place himself at the head of Christian society in the place of God’s chosen agent. The concluding words of the king’s letter demonstrated his seriousness of purpose and his conception of his role in Christian society: ‘I, Henry, King by the grace of God, together with all our bishops, say to you: Descend!

If Charlemagne’s Carolingian Empire to the Holy Roman Empire 43 imperial title rested on the fact of his power in Francia and in Italy, and on his conquests in the north and east, then the subsequent weakness of his heirs meant that the imperial title was improperly applied to them. Only the papacy appears to have retained a strong interest in the imperial title, but this interest was rooted in its need to find a protector in the constant struggle for control of central Italy. The ceremonies that attended the relations of the popes with the various Frankish rulers tended to emphasize the papal origin of the imperial title and of the function of the emperor as the papacy’s protector.

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