Download Environmental justice analysis : theories, methods, and by Feng Liu PDF

By Feng Liu

content material: bankruptcy 1 Environmental Justice, fairness, and rules --
1.1 Environmental Justice move 1 --
1.2 Environmental Justice regulations five --
1.3 Environmental Justice research 10 --
bankruptcy 2 Theories and Hypotheses --
2.1 Theories of Justice and fairness 19 --
2.1.1 Utilitarianism 20 --
2.1.2 Contractarianism and Egalitarianism 22 --
2.1.3 Libertarianism 23 --
2.1.4 Which conception? 24 --
2.2 monetary idea and placement conception 26 --
2.2.1 Externality and Public items 27 --
2.2.2 Welfare Economics 28 --
2.2.3 Residential position idea 30 --
2.2.4 commercial place conception 33 --
2.3 Theories of hazard 34 --
2.3.1 Psychometric conception 35 --
2.3.2 anticipated software idea 36 --
2.3.3 Cultural idea 36 --
2.3.4 Sociological thought 37 --
2.4 Theories of local swap 37 --
2.4.1 Classical Invasion-Succession version 38 --
2.4.2 local Life-Cycle version 39 --
2.4.3 Push-Pull version forty --
2.4.4 Institutional conception of local switch forty-one --
bankruptcy three technique and Analytical Framework for Environmental Justice and fairness research --
3.1 Inquiry and Environmental Justice research forty five --
3.1.1 Positivism and Participatory learn forty five --
3.1.2 clinical Reasoning forty seven --
3.1.3 Validity forty seven --
3.1.4 Causality fifty one --
3.2 Methodological matters in Environmental Justice study fifty two --
3.3 built-in Analytical Framework fifty five --
bankruptcy four Measuring Environmental and Human affects --
4.1 Environmental and Human affects: techniques and approaches sixty one --
4.2 Modeling and Simulating Environmental hazards sixty five --
4.2.1 Modeling publicity sixty six --
4.2.1.1 Emission versions sixty seven --
4.2.1.2 Dispersion types sixty nine --
4.2.1.3 Time-Activity styles and publicity types seventy one --
4.2.2 Modeling Dose-Response seventy two --
4.3 Measuring and Modeling monetary affects seventy five --
4.3.1 Contingent Valuation process seventy five --
4.3.2 Hedonic rate approach seventy six --
4.4 Measuring Environmental and Human affects for Environmental Justice research eighty one --
4.5 Critique and reaction of a Risk-Based method of fairness research 86 --
bankruptcy five Quantifying and Projecting inhabitants Distribution --
5.1 Census ninety three --
5.2 inhabitants Measurements: who's deprived? ninety five --
5.2.1 Race and Ethnicity ninety six --
5.2.2 source of revenue ninety nine --
5.2.3 hugely weak of uncovered Subpopulations 104 --
5.2.4 Age one zero five --
5.2.5 Housing 107 --
5.2.6 schooling 108 --
5.3 inhabitants Distribution 108 --
5.4 inhabitants Projection and Forecast a hundred and ten --
5.4.1 equipment 111 --
5.4.2 selecting the best strategy 113 --
bankruptcy 6 Defining devices of research --
6.1 Debate on number of Unit of research 117 --
6.2 Census Geography: ideas, standards, and Hierarchy a hundred and twenty --
6.2.1 uncomplicated Hierarchy: common Geographic devices one hundred twenty --
6.2.2 Non-Standard Geographic devices 126 --
6.3 Census Geography as a Unit of fairness research: Consistency, comparison, and Availability 128 --
6.3.1 Hierarchical dating and Geographic Boundary 128 --
6.3.2 Boundary comparison through the years 129 --
6.3.3 facts Availability and comparison through the years 131 --
6.4 Census Geography as a Unit of fairness research: Which One? 133 --
6.5 substitute devices of research 139 --
6.5.1 in response to the Boundary of Environmental affects a hundred and forty --
6.5.2 in accordance with the Boundary of Sociological local 141 --
6.5.3 in line with the Boundary of financial affects 142 --
6.5.4 in response to the Administrative/Political Boundary or Judicial critiques 143 --
bankruptcy 7 studying facts with Statistical equipment --
7.1 Descriptive information a hundred forty five --
7.2 Inferential records 149 --
7.3 Correlation and Regression 152 --
7.4 chance and Discrete selection types 156 --
7.5 Spatial records 157 --
7.6 functions of Statistical equipment in Environmental Justice stories 158 --
bankruptcy eight Integrating, examining, and Mapping facts with GIS --
8.1 Spatial Measures and ideas 164 --
8.1.1 Spatials facts 164 --
8.1.2 Spatial information constitution 164 --
8.1.3 Distance a hundred sixty five --
8.1.4 Centroid a hundred sixty five --
8.2 Spatial Interpolation one hundred sixty five --
8.2.1 element Interpolation 166 --
8.2.2 Areal Interpolation 167 --
8.3 GIS-Based devices of study for fairness research 168 --
8.3.1 Adjacency research 168 --
8.3.2 Buffer research 168 --
8.4 Overlay and Suitability research 172 --
8.5 GIS-Based Operationalization of fairness standards 174 --
8.6 Integrating GIS and concrete and Environmental types one hundred seventy five --
bankruptcy nine Modeling city platforms --
9.1 Gravity versions, Spatial interplay, and Entropy Maximization 178 --
9.2 Deterministic software, Random application, and Discrete selection 181 --
9.2.1 Deterministic software and Optimization 182 --
9.2.2 Random application conception and Discrete selection 183 --
9.3 coverage assessment Measures 184 --
9.4 Operational versions 186 --
9.5 Integrating city and Environmental types for Environmental Justice research 191 --
bankruptcy 10 fairness research of pollution --
10.1 Air caliber 195 --
10.2 courting among Air caliber and inhabitants Distribution: Theories, equipment, and proof 199 --
10.2.1.1 Residential place concept and Spatial interplay 199 --
10.2.1.2 chance conception and Human reaction to Air caliber 2 hundred --
10.2.1.3 Theories of local alterations 201 --
10.3 Spatial interplay Modeling method of trying out Environmental Inequity 205 --
10.3.1 challenge Definition 205 --
10.3.2 speculation 205 --
10.3.3 tools: Spatial interplay Modeling utilizing DRAM 205 --
10.3.4 Index building and information guidance 207 --
10.3.5 version Estimation 210 --
10.3.6.1 la 213 --
10.3.6.2 Houston 215 --
10.4 fairness research of nationwide Ambient Air caliber criteria 219 --
10.4.3.1 Nonattainment parts as a complete 221 --
10.4.3.2 Spatial Distribution and neighborhood variations 223 --
10.4.3.3 urban vs. Non-City Nonattainment components 230 --
10.4.3.4 significant Findings 233 --
10.4.3.5 Implications for Environmental coverage 234 --
bankruptcy eleven Environmental Justice research of dangerous Waste amenities, Superfund websites, and poisonous unencumber amenities --
11.1 fairness research of damaging Waste amenities 237 --
11.1.1 damaging Wastes 237 --
11.1.2 fairness research of unsafe Waste amenities 238 --
11.1.2.1 Cross-Sectional nationwide stories 239 --
11.1.2.2 local reports 247 --
11.1.3 Methodological concerns 248 --
11.2 fairness research of CERCLIS and Superfund websites 250 --
11.2.1 CERCLIS and Superfund websites 250 --
11.2.2 Hypotheses and Empirical proof 252 --
11.2.3 Methodological concerns 257 --
11.3 fairness research of poisonous unlock amenities 258 --
11.3.1 poisonous Releases stock 258 --
11.3.2 nationwide experiences and proof 261 --
11.3.3 nearby reports and Methodological advancements 264 --
11.3.4 Methodological matters 266 --
bankruptcy 12 Dynamics research of in the neighborhood undesirable Land makes use of --
12.1 Methodological concerns in Dynamics research 270 --
12.2 Framework for Dynamics research 273 --
12.3 Revisiting the Houston Case: speculation checking out 276 --
12.4 dialogue of other Hypotheses 279 --
12.4.1 Invasion-Succession speculation 279 --
12.4.2 Life-Cycle speculation 280 --
12.4.3 Push Forces: different Environmental hazards 282 --
bankruptcy thirteen fairness research of Transportation structures, initiatives, Plans, and regulations --
13.1 Environmental affects of Transportation structures 287 --
13.2 Incorporating fairness research within the Transportation making plans strategy 288 --
13.3 Transportation method functionality Measures 291 --
13.4 fairness research of Mobility and Accessibility 292 --
13.4.2 utilizing Accessibility for fairness research 297 --
13.4.3 Empirical facts approximately Mobility Disparity three hundred --
13.4.4 Accessibility Disparity and Spatial Mismatch 302 --
13.5 Measuring Distributional affects on estate Values 304 --
13.6 Measuring Environmental affects 307 --
13.7 fairness research of Transportation guidelines 308 --
13.8 Environmental Justice of Transportation in court docket 311 --
14.1 Internet-Based and Community-Based instruments 315 --
14.1.1 EPA's Environfacts 315 --
14.1.2 LandView III 317 --
14.1.3 Environmental Defense's Scorecard (http://www.scorecard.org/) 318.

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Additional resources for Environmental justice analysis : theories, methods, and practice

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The interpretive approach shows its strength in defining problems, reframing debate, formulating goals and objectives, describing processes, generating alternatives, and negotiating. The positivist perspective contributes most to alternative analysis, outcome prediction, and outcome evaluation. 2 SCIENTIFIC REASONING Philosophers of science have identified different types of reasoning in scientific research. Two of the most commonly discussed are induction and deduction. Beveridge (1950:113) described them as follows: “In induction one starts from observed data and develops a generalization which explains the relationships between the objects observed.

Each cultural pattern emphasizes those risks “that reinforce the moral, political, or religious order that holds the group together” (Rayner 1992). In their work, cultural theorists take into account the relationship between equity and risks. ” The more inequitable the distribution of wealth within a society, the more danger and hazards the poor suffer. Rayner (1992) proposes the fairness hypothesis and defines risk as probability × magnitudes + TLC (trust, liability, and consent). He points out the different concerns for various social groups in risk decision-making processes.

Participatory research methodology is “based upon critical thinking and reflection; it can be the foundation of rigor, giving meaning to truth. Truth is evaluated and confirmed through a practical discourse of planning, acting on the plan, and then observing and reflecting on results” (Bryant 1995:600). Participatory research involves a repetitive cycle of planning, action, observation, and reflection “in a nonlinear process — it is a dialectical progression moving from the specific to the general and back again” (Bryant 1995:600–601).

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