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What will be the pros and cons of using each of these materials? One thing to keep in mind is that aluminum alloys are good conductors of electricity. 1-21 Replacing about half of the steel-based materials in a car can reduce the weight of the car by almost 60%. This can lead to nearly a 30% increase in fuel e‰ciency. What kinds of materials could replace steel in cars? What would be the advantages and disadvantages in using these materials? 2 Atomic Structure Have You Ever Wondered? 9 What is nanotechnology?

1-3 Functional Classification of Materials We can classify materials based on whether the most important function they perform is mechanical (structural), biological, electrical, magnetic, or optical. This classification of materials is shown in Figure 1-6. Some examples of each category are shown. These categories can be broken down further into subcategories. Aerospace Light materials such as wood and an aluminum alloy (that accidentally strengthened the alloy used for making the engine even more by picking up copper from the mold used for casting) were used in the Wright brothers’ historic flight.

A large fraction of the electrical current is transferred via the movement of ions (Figure 2-15). Owing to their size, ions typically do not move as easily as electrons. However, in many technological applications we make use of the electrical conduction that can occur via movement of ions as a result of increased temperature, chemical potential gradient, or an electrochemical driving force. Examples of these include lithium ion batteries that make use of lithium cobalt oxide, conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings on glass for touch sensitive displays, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) based on compositions based on zirconia (ZrO2 ).

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