By W. Elliot Brownlee
Extending from the ratification of the structure to the current day. W. Elliott Brownlee describes the 5 valuable levels of federal taxation relating to the crises that resulted in their adoption--the formation of the republic, the Civil conflict, global warfare I, the good melancholy, and global struggle II. Now in a brand new variation, Brownlee expands his insurance to the current, with a brand new bankruptcy targeting the present tax regulations of the Bush management. This dialogue is determined inside a bigger research of up to date tax and financial concerns, together with battle finance, Social defense, and Medicare. First version Hb (1996): 0-521-56265-1 First version Pb (1996): 0-521-56586-3
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Additional resources for Federal Taxation in America: A Short History (Woodrow Wilson Center Press)
14 The Republican consumption taxes were regressive, taxing people with lower incomes at higher rates than those with higher incomes. Republican leaders generally preferred such taxes, but they also recognized that regressive taxes might undermine confidence in the Republican Party and the war effort, particularly in Western and border states. Consequently, they looked for a supplementary tax that bore a closer relationship to a citizen’s ability to pay than did the tariffs and excises. The twin goals would be to raise additional tax revenue, thus easing inflationary pressures, and to convince taxpayers that the wartime fiscal system was fair.
These households probably constituted roughly the slice of society that economic historians have estimated as owning 70 percent or more of the nation’s wealth in 1860. The income base for taxation was so substantial that in 1865 the tax, even with its low rate, produced nearly $61 million—21 percent of federal tax revenues for that year. ) With the end of hostilities and the resumption of full-scale foreign trade, customs revenues more than doubled in 1866, but income-tax revenues still accounted for congressional opposition to even higher rates, see Richardson, Greatest Nation of the Earth, 129 ff.
The major exceptions in the increasing reliance by state governments on property taxation were in the South, where the waxing movement to protect slavery increasingly shielded slaves from state taxation. In North Carolina, for example, during the 1840s and 1850s the state government relied on investment income from banks and railroads and on borrowing to reduce its reliance on property taxes. See Richard Sylla, “Long-Term Trends in State and Local Finance: Sources and Uses of Funds in North Carolina, 1800–1977,” in Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth, ed.