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Extra resources for Forensic DNA Analysis (Inside Forensic Science)
DegRADeD DNA DNA degradation refers to the breakdown of relatively large fragments of DNA into smaller fragments. When DNA within evidentiary samples has become degraded, the larger alleles within loci may be decreased in peak height or missing, depending on the amount of DNA breakdown. Thus, the larger allele of a heterozygous genotype may be missing, and the locus can appear as homozygous. In addition, all alleles for the larger STR loci may be missing. This is something that should be considered in samples that are old or have been exposed to environmental factors, such as sunlight, soil, bacteria, or fungi.
Most of the methods that are used to determine DNA concentration (for example, slot blot devices used with probes specific for human DNA, and real-time, quantitative PCR) compare the results for the test sample of extracted DNA with the results for calibrated standards that contain known quantities of DNA. 1). 1 DNA is quantified using a device known as a slot blot. 63 nanograms (ng). RestRiction FRagMent Length PoLyMoRPhisM The first DNA analysis method that was used in court for DNA identification was restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
For a more complete discussion of forensic mtDNA analysis, see Chapter 6. 33 4 Procedures in Forensic DNA Analysis Most biological materials that are left at a crime scene contain nuclear DNA and can be used for forensic DNA analysis. For a DNA profile to be accepted in a court of law, however, the evidence must be shown to have been collected carefully with an established chain of custody. The chain of custody documents who was in control of the evidence at any time, from the moment that it was collected to the time that it is introduced into evidence in the courtroom.