By David A. Frank
Harvard scientific institution, Boston, MA. textual content explores mobilephone sign transduction pathways of specific value to human melanoma. Emphasis is put on receptors on the phone floor, intracellular signaling cascades, transcription components functioning within the nucleus, and pathways triggering courses of cellphone dying.
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Extra info for Frank Signal Transduction in Cancer
EGF has important effects on cell growth, differentiation, and survival. , 1991). is synthesized in many cell types and was first isolated from the culture medium of an oncogenically transformed cell line (de Larco & Todaro, 1978). is synthesized as a precursor protein and, after 2 sequential endoproteolytic cleavages, forms a 50-amino acid single polypeptide chain that shares 42% homology with EGF (Dunn, Hesse, & Black, 2000; Massague & Pandiella, 1993). , 1992). 2. Epidermal Growth Factor (erb-B) Receptor Family The EGFR family of RTKs consists of 4 related receptors: EGFR/HER1 (c-erbB1), HER2 (c-erb-B2), HER3 (c-erb-B3), and HER4 (c-erb-B4).
Additional reversible TKIs in early preclinical testing include PD158780, CGP 59326A, PD153035, PKI 166 (formerly CGP75166), and GW2016. Two irreversible TKIs under evaluation are CI-033 and EKB-569. CI-1033, a pan-erbB TKI, is highly specific for EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4 and does not inhibit the TK activity of other receptors, even at high concentrations (Slichenmyer, 46 SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN CANCER Elliot, & Fry, 2001). , 2001). In vitro data suggest synergistic antitumor activities when it is administered in combination with cytotoxic agents.
Platelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) Aberrant PDGF activity is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of solid tumors, including glioblastoma, prostate, sarcoma, and breast and may exert its effects through both autocrine and paracrine stimulation (George, 2001; Heldin & Westermark, 1999). PDGF can promote tumor growth in a variety of ways. , 1992). PDGF has been shown to induce VEGF expression in endothelial cells expressing (Wang, Huang, Kazlauskas, & Cavenee, 1999). PDGFBB has also been shown to promote endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation (Battegay 1994).