By Stanislav N. Gorb
This e-book is dedicated to the quickly becoming region of technology facing constitution and houses of organic surfaces of their relation to specific function(s). This quantity, written through a crew of experts from diversified disciplines, covers a variety of floor services comparable to defense, protection, water shipping, anti-wetting, self cleansing, mild mirrored image and scattering, and acoustics. simply because organic surfaces have an almost never-ending strength of technological rules for the improvement of recent fabrics and platforms, inspirations from biology may be attention-grabbing for a vast diversity of subject matters in floor engineering.
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Additional resources for Functional Surfaces in Biology: Adhesion Related Phenomena Volume 2
Comparison of the calculated retractor muscle breaking 1 The Echinoderm Tube Foot and its Role in Temporary Underwater Adhesion 21 force with the total breaking force of whole tube feet shows that the retractor muscle accounts for only about 1% of the stem breaking force in sea urchins and for 18 to 25% in sea stars. , 2005b). It is apparent therefore that, when a tensile force is exerted on a tube foot stem, the connective tissue is the tissue layer bearing most of the load. 3 The Disc The discs of both asteroid and echinoid tube feet consist of two superposed layers of approximately equal thickness: a proximal supporting structure bearing the tensions associated with adhesion, and a distal adhesive pad making contact with the substratum and producing the adhesive secretion that fastens the tube foot to this substratum (Fig.
Ecology 36: 764–767. Flammang, P. (1996) Adhesion in echinoderms. In: Echinoderm Studies Vol. 5, ed. , and. M. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 1–60. Flammang, P. (2006) Adhesive secretions in echinoderms: an overview. In: Biological Adhesives, ed. M. A. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 183–206. , and Jangoux, M. (1992) Functional morphology of the locomotory podia of Holothuria forskali (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea). Zoomorphology 11: 167–178. , and Jangoux, M. (1993) Functional morphology of coronal and peristomeal podia in Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata, Echinoida).
1978) A functional classification of the coronal pores of echinoids. Palaeontology 21: 759–789. M. (2006) The biochemistry and mechanics of gastropod adhesive gels. In: Biological adhesives, ed. A. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp 167–182. A. (2006) Biological adhesives. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. E. (1947) The activities of the tube feet of Asterias rubens L. I. The mechanics of movement and of posture. Q J Microsc Sci 88: 1–14. , and Silva Sasso, W. (1970) Ultrastructural and histochemical studies on the epithelium revestment layer in the tube feet of the starfish Asterina stellifera.