By Patrick Irwin
This booklet stories the present country of data of the atmospheres of the enormous gaseous planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. the present theories in their formation are reviewed and their lately saw temperature, composition and cloud constructions are contrasted and in comparison with uncomplicated thermodynamic, radiative move and dynamical versions. The tools and strategies which have been used to remotely degree their atmospheric homes also are reviewed, and the most probably improvement of outer planet observations over the subsequent twenty years is printed. This moment variation has been broadly up to date following the Cassini challenge effects for Jupiter/Saturn and the most recent ground-based measurements for Uranus/Neptune in addition to at the newest improvement within the theories on planet formation.
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Additional info for Giant planets of our solar system: atmospheres, composition, and structure
Although the general structure is long-lived, the contrast of the dierent features varies with time. These changes are usually gradual, although the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) often displays dramatic outbursts of cloud activity (Dowling, 1997; Rogers, 1995), the most recent upheaval occurring in 2007. The belt/zone structure is generally thought to be formed by a global circulation system that upwells moist air in the ``zones'', forming bright cloudy regions and subsides in the belts, forming relatively cloud-free regions that appear dark in the visible, although it has been suggested that this circulation reverses at deeper levels (as we shall see in Chapter 5).
In Chapter 7 we will review the sources of information that have been used to construct our current understanding of the atmospheres of these planets and outline how these remotely sensed spectra may be inverted via retrieval theory in order to estimate the physical conditions in these atmospheres. Finally, in Chapter 8 we will look to the future and describe further planned measurements of the giant planets and also missions to ®nd extrasolar planets, including giant planets, about other stars.
2c. Major satellites of Uranus. 2 Only satellites with a mean radius greater than 100 km have been included. The vertical cloud structure appears to be similar to that of Uranus. Again ground-based microwave spectra detect very little ammonia at the expected ammonia condensation level suggesting that it combines with either water or H2 S well below the observable cloud decks. Instead, the main cloud deck is again probably composed of H2 S. A thinner methane haze is found at higher altitudes. Like Uranus, no clear belt/zone structure is evident, although the opacity of the methane cloud deck between 30 and 60 , north and south, has increased signi®cantly in the last decade.