By Minoru Tomozawa and Robert H. Doremus (Eds.)
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Indepen dent of composition, silicate glasses show a very small contact angle toward water immediately after treatment in a glow discharge, but a rapid increase of contact angle with time. These changes result from surface reactions with H 2 0 and air and a surface reconstruction, that is, from a decrease of ySL (Fig. 27). The rate of change of the glass surface after treatment in a glow discharge depends on the discharge conditions (energy density, kind of gas, pressure, and treatment time). With treatment in a plasma a number of radicals are formed in the surface region and also in the bulk which are detectable by ESR spectroscopy (Griscom, 1976; Friebele and Griscom, 1979; Stapel brock and Griscom, 1979).
Corrosive reactions, which alter chemically the surface zone in the bulk phase and can lead to successive dissolution of the glass. These processes play a decisive role in surface purification and ion exchange processes and determine the chemical durability of the glasses. The chemical modification reactions at silicate glass surfaces re place the following surface groups or atoms. 1. ; Y is Si, B, Al etc; and R is a halogen or an organic group. It is assumed that the dissociation energy of an X s - 0 46 H.
5) lead at low temperatures to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm: St =Apllm; A,m = constants (8) For a distribution function: p(q) = aq exp[-b(q - c)2] (9) the Dubinin-Raduskevie isotherm results, which is applicable to systems with pores: θ( = exp[-B(RT In pjp)2] (10) a, b, c, and B are constants; ps is the saturation vapor pressure. In place of the Langmuir isotherm other local isotherms can be introduced into Eqs. (4) and (5); these isotherms account for ex change between adsorbed atoms. From the adsorption isostere In/?