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By Larry Cuban

''I comprehend of no one who does the 'long view' of academic reform larger than Larry Cuban, and this article exemplifies this greater than ever. For these really attracted to sustainable instead of superficial reform, this is often required reading.''-- Ciaran Sugrue, college of Cambridge, UKLarry Cuban's How academics Taught has been greatly acclaimed as a pathbreaking textual content at the historical past and evolution of school room instructing. Now Cuban brings his nice adventure as a school room instructor, superintendent, and researcher to this hugely expected follow-up to his groundbreaking paintings. concentrating on 3 varied institution districts (Arlington, Virginia; Denver, Colorado; Oakland, California), Hugging the center deals an incisive portrayal of ways academics train now. it's a revealing examine a number of present, conceivable pedagogical strategies educators are utilizing to have interaction scholars whereas gratifying mom and dad and policymakers -- concepts that be triumphant by way of growing hybrid practices that mix either teacher-centered ways (e.g., more often than not direct guideline, textbooks, lectures) with student-centered ones (e.g., staff initiatives on real-world difficulties, autonomous studying, small-groupwork).A state-of-the-profession overview during this period of top-down academic coverage, Hugging the Middle:* Brings Larry Cuban's years of expertise and prepared historian's eye to an research of training today.* seems to be at academics' carrying on with variations to standards-based schooling reform and the No baby Left in the back of Act.* Compares school room practices in a cross-section of U.S. city schools.* Gauges the impression of know-how (or lack thereof) within the modern school room.

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Hugging the middle: how teachers teach in an era of testing and accountability

''I be aware of of not anyone who does the 'long view' of academic reform greater than Larry Cuban, and this article exemplifies this greater than ever. For these really attracted to sustainable instead of superficial reform, this can be required interpreting. ''-- Ciaran Sugrue, college of Cambridge, UKLarry Cuban's How academics Taught has been broadly acclaimed as a pathbreaking textual content at the background and evolution of school room instructing.

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2). 1. High school classroom, Arlington, Virginia, 2004. All photos by the author. 2. Second-grade classroom, Denver, Colorado, 2004. 2. Traditional “rows” arrangement of classroom space in three districts, 1993–2005. Reports of “Rows” Arrangement Arlington Elementary Secondary Total Denver Elementary Secondary Total Oakland Elementary Secondary Total Number of Reports N % 78 51 19 16 24 31 129 35 29 56 128 14 69 25 54 184 83 45 43 118 4 78 9 66 161 82 51 24 Hugging the Middle Change over time is also important to note.

Occasional teacher use of ICT—once a month— has slightly increased in the past decade, to nearly 50%, meaning that the percentage of teachers who hardly ever use ICT for classroom instruction remains around 40%. 9 In my study of the three districts, every teacher had access to at least one computer daily in the classroom, department office, or elsewhere. Student access, however, varied across districts. Computer labs, machines in the media center (formerly the school library), and mobile carts filled with laptops were obvious in schools I visited.

Nor did I collect school and district test scores in the three districts, so statements that I make about the connections between pedagogy and students’ academic achievement are, again, drawn from the large body of research studies done in other districts. LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE I disclose what comes from my study and what comes from other researchers because the question of whether or not pedagogies can be linked to student outcomes matters a great deal in policy debates. Decisionmakers, researchers, practitioners, and parents continue to believe as an article of faith—with little evidence—that some kinds of teaching are better than others in getting students to perform well academically in the overheated climate of test-driven accountability.

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