By David J. Young
Introducing English Grammar presents a uncomplicated grounding in English grammar, with no going into an excessive amount of aspect or idea, and may lay the root for additional grammatical reports. David younger provides English grammar in a coherent and energetic means. He dispels the preferred idea between scholars that grammar is just a collection of dreary principles and argues for the significance of grammar in describing the constitution and serve as of language itself. workouts are supplied on the finish of every bankruptcy and the booklet contains built-in diagrams and a word list of technical phrases in the back of the ebook.
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It seems unsatisfactory to view the dog and a good companion as distinct participants in a situation of ‘being’; the complement in this case denotes a 47 characterization of the subject, not a separate participant. The most common verb that has the property of linking a participant (the subject) with a characterizing complement is be. But other verbs are also employed, such as those in italics in the following sentences: The dog appears friendly The leaves turned brown The wind became a hurricane The farmyard looks dirty More will be said about the syntax of these sentences in Chapter 5 (see pp.
See Verbs and verb phrases Chapter 5, p. ) We may also use the terms finite and non-finite of clauses. If a clause contains a finite verb phrase, it is a finite clause; such clauses contain a subject. If a clause contains a verb phrase but has no finite verb phrase, then it is a non-finite clause. (Exercises 8, 9 and 10 are on pp. ) Verbs as complements We saw on p. 37 that verbs can take a wide variety of expressions as their complements. Further study of the complementation of verbs will feature in Chapter 5.
So it may look as though subject-verb agreement is not a very important principle in English grammar. It is certainly true that some languages, among them Spanish and Russian, have systems of agreement between subject and verb that are much more complicated and extensively manifested than the English system. But we still have to take account of the verb be. This verb is extremely common and for finite expressions it uses not three forms (base, s-form and d-form), but five: am, are, is, was, were.