By James P. Sterba
The one anthology of its style, this complete paintings provides defenses and critiques-both classical and contemporary--of seven seminal conceptions of justice: the Libertarian, the Socialist, the Liberal-Democratic, the Communitarian, the Feminist, the Postmodern, and the Environmental.
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In such a situation, the chooser need only choose the quantity to buy or sell, as the competitive environment makes the agent's situation relatively simple - the price can effectively be viewed as a parameter, and only the quantity need be chosen at this parametric price. The experimental literature, casual empiricism, and much empirical literature (at least on the demand side) have shown this approach to yield a good predictive model. Both proponents and critics typically acknowledge the power of the competitive behavior version of the substantive rationality paradigm in the appropriate domain of application.
We believe that all people start out life in such a situation of strong uncertainty. Holland et al. argue that one needs to organize one's observations and learning into some sort of structure, one not already programmed at birth; we discuss some of the implications of such an approach to knowledge representation throughout this chapter. If all choices were simple, were made frequently with substantial and rapid feedback, and involved substantial motivation, then substantive rationality would suffice for all purposes.
In this chapter, as in previous ones, Lodge and Taber use theory and experiments to clarify how a common aspect of human cognition affects political choices. Lodge and Taber's efforts extend exciting lines of research in psychology and cognitive science concerning the deep connections between cognition and affect. Whereas cognition and affect were once viewed as 17 Lupia, McCubbins, and Popkin polar opposites in the context of understanding reason, an increasingly common view is that each is necessary for the proper functioning of the other.