By Peter Stachura
In accordance with broad variety of Polish, British, German, Jewish and Ukranian fundamental and secondary resources, this paintings presents an target appraisal of the inter-war interval. Peter Stachura demonstrates how the Republic overcame massive stumbling blocks at domestic and in a foreign country to accomplish consolidation as an autonomous nation within the early Nineteen Twenties, made relative fiscal development, created a coherent social order, produced an excellent cultural scene, complex academic chance, and followed confident and even-handed guidelines in the direction of its ethnic minorities. with no denying the defeats suffered via the Republic, Peter Stachura demonstrates that the destiny of Poland after 1945, with the imposition of an undesirable, Soviet-dominated Communist procedure, used to be completely undeserved.
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Extra resources for Poland, 1918-1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic
Ominously, however, the close association of Jews with Bolshevism (Żydokomuna) was confirmed in popular imagination and mercilessly propagated by the nationalist camp and its allies. On the other hand, victory did not bring permanent political harmony to Poland, with the Endecja and the Piłsudski camp, in particular, soon at each other’s throats again. None the less, Piłsudski’s personal reputation was manifestly enhanced in the eyes of most Poles, who approved of the formal conferment on him in November 1920 of the title, ‘First Marshal of Poland’.
For Poland is the barrier to the perennial danger of an invasion from the east. Source: Article in Gazeta Polska, 17 August 1930 Document 34 The decision of the Conference of Ambassadors on Poland’s Frontiers, 15 March 1923: The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan, signatories with the United States of America, as the principal Allied and associated Powers, of the Versailles Treaty of Peace: Considering that by the terms of Article 87, paragraph 3, of the said Treaty, it is for them to ﬁx the frontiers of Poland which have not been speciﬁed by that Treaty; Considering that it is recognised by Poland that in so far as the Eastern part of Galicia is concerned, the ethnographical conditions necessitate an autonomous regime; Considering that the Treaty concluded between the principal Allied and associated Powers and Poland on 28 June 1919,has provided for special guarantees in favour of racial, language and religious minorities in all the territories placed under Polish sovereignty; Considering that so far as the frontier between Poland and Russia is concerned, Poland has entered into direct relations with that state with a view to determining the line; 43 POLAND, 1918–1945 Have charged the Conference of Ambassadors with the regulation of this question.
Document 18 Louis Marshall, chairman of the American Jewish Committee, in a letter to President Woodrow Wilson, 7 November 1918: It is generally recognised that one of the most important subjects to come before the Conference of Nations to be held at the close of the war is the restoration of Poland. It necessarily affects the future of all of the inhabitants within the area of the re-created Polish State . . approximately four million Jews . . will be directly concerned. Hence, whatever the geographical extent of the new State or its form of government, the civil, political and religious rights of these Jews must be safeguarded.