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Extra info for Radionuclide exposure of the embryo/fetus : recommendations of the national Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
5 DISTRIBUTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN 1 37 Iodide crosses the placenta readily and may concentrate in the fetal thyroid to a higher degree than in the maternal thyroid after the 10th week of gestation. Iodinated compounds or their metabolites may or may not cross to the fetus. Thallium citrate has been shown to cross the placenta of guinea pigs and to reach higher concentrations in the fetal than in the maternal ovary. Thallium has a longer biological halftime in the fetus than in the mother. Only a small fraction of gallium as the citrate crosses to the conceptus, but the placenta binds large quantities.
Where membrane permeability is the limiting factor, increasing the effective flow does not influence the exchange. Most drugs fall into an intermediate category, being partially limited by permeability and partially by flow. The permeability for any given substance usually must be empirically determined for the species of interest, because there are not yet adequate generalities for prediction of placental transfer. Transfer of charged molecules is determined by the presence of an electrical potential as well as the concentration gradient.
More commonly, therefore, defects in the lower dose range are believed to 44 / 6. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL IRRADIATION involve the migratory processes andlor subsequent differentiation of the neural cells. The developmental sequence requires temporal and spatial precision for correct neuronal positioning and synaptogenesis, especially because misplaced cells tend to die. It is considered unlikely that these multicellular events would display a linear dose response or that they would occur following alteration of a single cell.