Download Recent Modelling Approaches in Applied Energy Economics by Olav Bjerkholt, Eystein Gjelsvik, Øystein Olsen (auth.), PDF

By Olav Bjerkholt, Eystein Gjelsvik, Øystein Olsen (auth.), Olav Bjerkholt, Øystein Olsen, Jon Vislie (eds.)

construction. certainly, we're open to feedback from all readers of, and individuals to, the sequence concerning its technique and content material. ultimately, i need to thank all those that have helped the release of this sequence. The encouraging reaction obtained from authors who've contributed the coming near near volumes and from the subscribers to the sequence has indicated the necessity for any such e-book. Homa Motamen-Scobi London December 1987 Preface In 1990 either OPEC and the OECD will have a good time their 30th anntvers­ aries. OPEC used to be based - particularly disregarded - by way of oil-producing nations nonetheless suffering to achieve keep an eye on over nationwide petroleum assets. destiny contributors have been nonetheless lower than colonial rule. the key target of the recent association - years prior to it was once capable of make metropolitan newspaper headlines - used to be stabilizing oil costs. balance in these days intended hinder­ ing oil costs from falling in genuine phrases. The OECD used to be shaped by means of generally mature commercial economies marking the normalization of the postwar foreign financial system after years of reconstruction, strict alternate laws, and so forth. the purpose of the hot association was once to advertise 'the maximum sustainable progress and employment' in member nations. by the way, 1960 used to be additionally the 12 months which gave start to a extra loosely outlined block on the planet neighborhood, specifically the underdeveloped international locations, qS the African colonial empires ultimately broke up. the 2 enterprises turned adversaries within the Seventies within the energy fight over the strength flows of the world.

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The growth in demand was also supported by the emergence of central heating The evolution of natural gas demand in Western Europe 31 systems in Western Europe. The effects of this were twofold. First, it reinforced the households' decision to switch from coal to natural gas based heating systems, because in many countries natural gas was aggressively marketed for use in central heating systems. Secondly, the presence of central heating systems raised the intensity of use in each home. g. the Netherlands and the UK.

In Bjerkholt, Gjelsvik and Olsen (1989) some alternative simulations are undertaken, based on changes in the assumptions regarding indigenous production in consumer countries, discount rates and the start period of the supply game. They are all characterized by strong growth in consumption ranging from 47 to 80% from the base year to 2000. In some of the model runs, the dynamic game leads to strategic investments aimed at preventing other players' investments. Even though the dynamic supply model is not designed for projecting the development of the European gas market in any detail, it demonstrates an important theoretical point: oligopolistic competition can lead to a fierce fight for market shares, even though there are few players.

Secondly, the presence of central heating systems raised the intensity of use in each home. g. the Netherlands and the UK. International trade extended the market to Italy, France and West Germany. 1. Throughout the study period, the UK has been the largest user of natural gas, accounting for 38% of total consumption in the region in 1986. a. a. a. From 1973 to 1978, natural gas consumption increased even further; the annual average growth rate was around 10%. Natural gas systems replaced oil systems in existing dwellings, and were installed in new dwellings.

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