By Antonio Navarra (auth.), Antonio Navarra, Laurence Tubiana (eds.)
Volume 1 of a three-volume ultimate file describes, synthesizes and analyzes the result of the four-year built-in study venture CIRCE – weather swap and effect learn: Mediterranean surroundings, funded via the european sixth Framework Programme. carried out below the auspices of the nationwide Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy, CIRCE used to be designed to foretell and to quantify the actual affects of weather swap within the Mediterranean, and to evaluate the main influential outcomes for the region’s inhabitants. This quantity accommodates the 1st elements of the record, reviewing present wisdom of saw weather variability and developments within the Mediterranean, and together with descriptions of accessible temperature and precipitation station and gridded information sets.
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Quantity 1 of a three-volume ultimate document describes, synthesizes and analyzes the result of the four-year built-in learn undertaking CIRCE – weather switch and influence examine: Mediterranean surroundings, funded by way of the ecu sixth Framework Programme. performed less than the auspices of the nationwide Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy, CIRCE was once designed to foretell and to quantify the actual affects of weather swap within the Mediterranean, and to evaluate the main influential effects for the region’s inhabitants.
Additional info for Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean: Volume 1: Air, Sea and Precipitation and Water
In this section, we assess Mediterranean past and recent trends (1951–2005) of seasonal (winter, DJF and summer, JJA) temperature and precipitation. For the trends detection and estimation, a modified Mann-Kendall test (Yue et al. 2002) and the Theil Sen method (Sen 1968) are applied. The two methods are nonparametric and are characterized by robustness. Winter precipitation in the Mediterranean is characterized by a drying both for the station series and the gridded data (Fig. 3a, b). Differences in the statistical significance of trends between the observations and the gridded data could be attributed to the homogenization process.
These models, however, are forced with prescribed lower boundary conditions (sea-surface temperatures, SSTs) and thus they do not take into account any air-sea feedbacks. , Marcos and Tsimplis 2008). Similar arguments hold for Regional Ocean only model simulations, where air-sea feedbacks are not considered and the surface fluxes are generally obtained from low resolution models. A first attempt to remedy these deficiencies has been made by Somot et al. (2008) who developed an atmosphere-ocean regional climate model (AORCM) coupling a variable resolution version of a global atmospheric model with a high-resolution oceanic model of the Mediterranean Sea (see Somot et al.
1a; Kuglitsch et al. 2010, 2009). 2 Past and Current Climate Changes in the Mediterranean Region 15 Kuglitsch et al. (2009, 2010) indicated that the 1960s Mediterranean daily temperature time series are warm biased. This is in agreement with other studies for western Europe for the earlier instrumental period. During this period, many station screens were changed in terms of type, size and ventilation, making measured temperatures closer to the ambient temperature (Aguilar et al. 2003). In addition, some of the thermometers are believed to have been more exposed to extremes of sensible heat in the earlier twentieth century decades than in the present (Della-Marta et al.