By Masakazu Sugiyama, Katsushi Fujii, Shinichiro Nakamura
This ebook explains the conversion of solar power to chemical strength and its garage. It covers the fundamental history; interface modeling on the reacting floor; strength conversion with chemical, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical ways and effort conversion utilizing utilized photosynthesis. the $64000 options for changing sun to chemical strength are in response to an knowing of the reactions’ equilibrium and non-equilibrium stipulations. because the power conversion is largely the move of loose power, the method are defined within the context of thermodynamics.
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Extra info for Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion: Theory and Application
8 The left-bottom schematic depicts an idealized semiconductor photocatalyst with two metals serving as selective contacts for electrons and holes. The metals also function as catalysts for the transfer of electrons and holes to the molecules in an electrolyte. Three diagrams depicts band lineup and (quasi) Fermi levels before making a contact, a contact under dark and illumination. For the band lineup under illumination, the vacuum level is omitted because its misalignment between an electrolyte and a semiconductor is not straightforward; it is affected by the electric double layer at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface and is strongly dependent on the surface.
8) and (14) now take different values between electrons and holes. We call the value of EFn and EFp as quasi Fermi level for electrons and holes, respectively. Since electrons and holes are no longer in equilibrium, we have to deﬁne quasi free energies individually for electrons and holes. The behavior of (quasi) free energies, or (quasi) Fermi levels, upon light absorption is depicted in Fig. 7. For an intrinsic semiconductor, light irradiation increases the concentrations of both electrons and holes by Δn and Δp, respectively, where Δn = Δp.
15) is used. The discussion above clariﬁes that the thermodynamic treatment of carrier concentrations in a semiconductor is another viewpoint of Fermi-Dirac distribution of electrons in a semiconductor. 9 Detailed Derivation of Electron/Hole Free Energies in a Semiconductor This section can be skipped if the reader is not so familiar with solid-state physics. The detailed discussion is in Ref. . Let us ﬁrst obtain the averaged energy of the electrons in the conduction band. he i ¼ 11 Z 3 EDe ðE Þf ðEÞdE ¼ Ec þ kT: ne Ec 2 ð26Þ Similarly, the averaged energy of the holes in the valence band is: Àhh i ¼ 1 À1 Z 3 ðÀEÞDh ðE Þf ðE ÞdE ¼ ÀEv þ kT; nh Ev 2 ð27Þ where Dh(E) is the density of states in the valence band, which takes the form of Eq.