By Paul J. Hopper
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45-7, 57, 254-6). There is no occurrence of wiya outside the interrogative verbs, but this form does show considerable formal similarity with interrogative roots such as wanya 'who', wunydya 'where', and minya 'what', and may be etymologically related to them. The forms yalama-l and wiyama-l could be regarded as (historically) involving the productive verbaliser -ma-l. W. DIXON we encounter forms that appear to involve the delocutive affix -(m)ba-y - it is normal to use a deictic to refer the listener to an explanatory mime, and a translation 'to say yala' would be appropriate here.
S9a. John fought the men off the bridge. Statistically speaking, S1 passed (18 plusses), S19 failed (17 minuses, 1 U ) , and S9 was in-between (6 plusses, 8 minuses, 4 U's). ) The modification test. ) Informants were instructed to modify the particle in each main sentoid with at least one of these expressions: all the way; completely, entirely; S1b. for example, John carried the tray all the way (entirely or completely) out. S19b. *John waited his time all the way or completely) S9b. (entirely out.
I submit that ran i n t o 9 is frequently felt to be (in some degree) more a single semantic unit than ran i n t o 8 and less a single semantic unit than ran i n t o . By this reasoning ran i n t o is a clear case of neither verb-and-prep nor verb-prep; rather it is somewhere in-between. If the foregoing argument for ran i n t o 9 as an in-between case is not convincing, we need only look at other sentences to bolster our case; these, for example: 10. I went into the room. 11. (I couldn't stop my car fast enough and so) I simply went right into that tree (over there).