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Ibid. , p. 1945). 93 Ibid. (1228b2-3, p. 1946). 94 My emphasis; ibid. (1229a7-11, pp. 1946-47). ), The Complete Works of Aristotle, Vol. 6, 1362b16-18, p. 2166). 92 38 unpleasantness. The pleasure and pain principle further enables Aristotle to argue that ‘normal’ individuals act in ways that consider the state of their own bodies and the consequences any particular activity might have on it. 96 This characterisation of fear is in keeping with what Aristotle had earlier claimed were the ends which both ‘individuals’ and ‘all men in common’ strive for as they considered the objects worth pursuing and avoiding.

Broadie, Ethics with Aristotle (pp. 128-29). 90 Ibid. (p. 129). 89 37 A particularly interesting case-study for how voluntary actions may be contrary to both nature and reason can be found in Aristotle’s discussion of bravery. Irrationality, if we recall from De anima, stems primarily from the individual undertaking any action that could be said to hinder its soul’s natural movement towards growth. ’91 In speaking of the irrationality of a particular action, the dominating emotions that can hinder the soul’s biological and ethical growth are said to be either fear or foolhardiness.

1740). , p. 1924). 81 Ibid. 1, 1218b33-34; 1219a24, pp. 1929-30). ’82 Of particular interest for ascertaining the nature of virtue and happiness are those natural functions which suggest certain objects for pursuit and others for avoidance. These may be found in the broad range of emotional responses and actions which the soul either initiates or is subjected to. Voluntary actions are said to be those that agree with desire, choice or thought. 86 Involuntary actions and the pain they instil have an equally important place in our understanding of the nature of human actions.

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